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Child Abuse: Virginia Statutes and Case Law

Child Abuse: Virginia Statutes and Case Law

Table of Contents

View Entire Document (.pdf, 137 pages)

Cover & Title Pages (.pdf, 10 pages)

Preface (.pdf, 2 pages)

Introduction (.pdf 2 pages)

Chapter One: Investigation (.pdf, 8 pages)

  1. The Role of Law Enforcement

    1. Search Warrents
    2. Pretext Conversation Recordings and Electronic Surveillance
    3. Social Worker Involvement in Interrogation
    4. Medical Examinations and Forensic Photographs
      1. Physical or Sexual Abuse or Neglect
      2. Death of a Child
    5. Forensic Analysis
    6. Polygraph Tests
    7. Hypnosis
    8. Arrest

  2. The Role of Child Protective Services

  3. The Role of Other Agencies

    1. Action By Physician, Protective Services Worker or Law Enforcement Official
    2. Civil Child Protection Proceedings
    3. Molti-disciplinary Coordination
    4. Grand Juries

Chapter Two: Charging Considerations (.pdf, 14 pages)

  1. Offenses

    1. Sexual Offenses
      1. Generally
      2. Mental State
      3. Conduct
        1. Force
        2. Penetration
        3. Abduction
        4. Carnal Knowledge
        5. Custody or Supervision of Child
    2. Physical Abuse: Cruelty to Children
    3. Pornography Offenses
      1. Constitutionality
      2. Elements
    4. Attempts
    5. Specific Intent
    6. Overt Action
    7. Principals and Accessories

  2. The Charging Documents

    1. Specificity
    2. Number of Counts

  3. Time Considerations

    1. Statutes of Limitation
    2. Speedy Trial and Due Process

  4. Lesser Included Offenses

  5. Use of Circumstantial Evidence in Child Physical Abuse and Homicide Cases

    1. Generally
    2. Corpus Delicti

Chapter Three: Pre-Trial Motions (.pdf, 10 pages)

  1. Defense Motions

    1. Discovery
      1. Psychological/Psychiatric Records
      2. Physical Examination
      3. Juvenile Records
      4. Discovery of Other Documents
      5. Excolpatory Evidence


  2. Other Defense Motions

Chapter Four: Trial (.pdf, 16 pages)

Chapter Five: Special Courtroom Procedures (.pdf, 4 pages)

Appendix A: Child Abuse Charging Statutes (.pdf, 14 pages)

Murder VA Code §18.2-32
Murder of a pregnant woman VA Code §18.2-32.1
Felony murder VA Code §18.2-33
Abduction with intent to defile VA Code §18.2-48
Rape VA Code §18.2-61
Carnal knowledge if a child between 13 and 15 VA Code §18.2-63
Carnal knowledge of certain minors VA Code §18.2-64.1
Forcible sodomy VA Code §18.2-67.1
Object sexual penetration VA Code §18.2-67.2
Aggravated sexual battery VA Code §18.2-67.3
Sexual battery VA Code §18.2-67.4
Attempts VA Code §18.2-67.5
Definitions VA Code §18.2-67.10
Pandering VA Code §18.2-355
Crimes against nature VA Code §18.2-361
Incest VA Code §18.2-366
Taking indecent liberties with children VA Code §18.2-370
Indecent liberties by children; penalty VA Code §18.2-370.01
Taking indecent liberties with child by person in custodial or supervisory relationship VA Code §18.2-370.1
Sex offenses prohibiting proximity to children VA Code §18.2-370.2
Causing or encouraging acts rendering children delinquent, abused, etc.; penalty VA Code §18.2-371
Abuse and neglect of children; penalty VA Code §18.2-371.1
Production, publication, sale, possession with intent to distribute financing, etc.,
of sexually explicit items involving children; presumption as to age; severability
VA Code §18.2-374.1
Possession of child pornography VA Code §18.2-374.1:1
Seizure and forfeiture of property used in connection with production of sexually
explicit items involving children
VA Code §18.2-374.2
Use of communications systems to facilitate certain offenses involving children VA Code §18.2-374.3
Indecent exposure VA Code §18.2-387
Definitions VA Code §18.2-390
Child Pornography Images Registry; maintenance; access VA Code §18.2-390.3
Desertion and nonsupport VA Code §20-61
Cruelty and injuries to children; penalty VA Code §40.1-103

Appendix B: Child Abuse Procedural and Evidentiary Statutes (.pdf, 28 pages)

Immunity of hospital or rescue squad personnel for the acceptance of certain infants VA Code §8.01-226.5:2
Competency of witness VA Code §8.01-396.1
Purpose of the Sex Offender and Crimes Against Minors Registry VA Code §9.1-900
Persons for whom registration required VA Code §9.1-901
Offenses requiring registration VA Code §9.1-902
Registration procedures VA Code §9.1-903
Reregistration VA Code §9.1-904
New residents and nonresident offenders; registration required VA Code §9.1-905
Enrollment or employment at institution of higher learning; information required VA Code §9.1-906
Procedures upon a failure to register or reregister VA Code §9.1-907
Duration of registration requirement VA Code §9.1-908
Relief from registration or reregistration VA Code §9.1-909
Removal of name and information from Registry VA Code §9.1-910
Registry maintenance VA Code §9.1-911
Registry access and dissemination; fees VA Code §9.1-912
Public dissemination by means of the Internet VA Code §9.1-913
Automatic notification of registration to certain entities VA Code §9.1-914
Regulations VA Code §9.1-915
Limitation on liability VA Code §9.1-916
Misuse of Registry information; penalty VA Code §9.1-917
Severability; liberal construction VA Code §9.1-918
Power of circuit court over juvenile offender VA Code §16.1-272
Mandatory HIV testing VA Code §18.2-62
Use of videotaped testimony VA Code §18.2-67
Admission of evidence (rape shield) VA Code §18.2-67.7
Closed preliminary hearings VA Code §18.2-67.8
Use of closed-circuit television testimony VA Code §18.2-67.9
Venue where any person transported for criminal sexual assault,attempted criminal sexual assault, or purposes of unlawful sexual intercourse, crimes against nature, indecent liberties with children VA Code §18.2-359
Providing false information or failing to provide registration information; penalty; prima facie evidence VA Code §18.2-472.1
Crime victim and witness rights VA Code §19.2-11.01
Victim-witness assistance programs VA Code §19.2-11.1
Crime victim’s right to nondisclosure of certain information;exceptions; testimonial privilege VA Code §19.2-11.2
Establishment of victim-offender reconciliation program VA Code §19.2-11.4
Arrest without a warrant in cases of assault and battery against a household member VA Code §19.2-81.3
Speedy trial VA Code §19.2-243
Joinder of defendants VA Code §19.2-262.1
Excluding witnesses VA Code §19.2-265.01
Provisions applicable to witnesses in criminal as well as civil cases; obligation to attend; summons VA Code §19.2-267
Prompt complaint VA Code §19.2-268.2
Protecting the identity of witnesses VA Code §19.2-269.2
Admissibility of DNA evidence VA Code §19.2-270.5
Evidence of abuse VA Code §19.2-270.6
Marital privilege VA Code §19.2-271.2
Victim Impact Statement VA Code §19.2-299
Victim Impact Statement VA Code §19.2-299.1
Mental evaluation of defendant VA Code §19.2-300
Sex Offender and Crimes Against Minors Registry; maintenance; access VA Code §19.2-390.1
Application for driver’s license; proof of completion of driver education program; penalty VA Code §46.2-323
Jailer to give notice of release to certain prisoners VA Code §53.1-116.1
Department to give notice of release of certain prisoners VA Code §53.1-160.1

Appendix C: Civil Child Abuse Statutes (.pdf, 24 pages)

Autopsies VA Code §32.1-285
Deaths of infants under 18 months of age VA Code §32.1-285.1
Definitions VA Code §63.2-100
Acceptance of children by local department of social services VA Code §63.2-910.1
Definitions VA Code §63.2-1501
Establishment of Child-Protective Services Unit; duties VA Code §63.2-1502
Duties of child protective services VA Code §63.2-1503
Child-protective services differential response system VA Code §63.2-1504
Investigations by local departments VA Code §63.2-1505
Family assessments by local departments VA Code §63.2-1506
Multi-disciplinary cooperation VA Code §63.2-1507
Physicians, nurses, teachers, etc., to report certain injuries to children; penalty for failure to report VA Code §63.2-1509
Complaints by others of certain injuries to children VA Code §63.2-1510
Complaints of abuse and neglect against school personnel VA Code §63.2-1511
Immunity of person making report, etc., from liability VA Code §63.2-1512
Knowingly making false reports; penalties VA Code §63.2-1513
Retention of records in all reports; procedures regarding unfounded reports alleged to be made in bad faith or with malicious intent VA Code §63.2-1514
Central registry; disclosure of information VA Code §63.2-1515
Tape recording child abuse investigations VA Code §63.2-1516
Investigation procedures when school employee is subject of the complaint or report; release of information in joint investigations VA Code §63.2-1516.1
Authority to take child into custody VA Code §63.2-1517
Authority to talk to child or sibling VA Code §63.2-1518
Physician-patient and husband-wife privileges inapplicable VA Code §63.2-1519
Photographs and X-rays of child; use as evidence VA Code §63.2-1520
Testimony by child using two way closed-circuit television VA Code §63.2-1521
Admission of evidence of sexual acts with children VA Code §63.2-1522
Use of videotaped statements of complaining witnesses as evidence VA Code §63.2-1523
Court may order certain examinations VA Code §63.2-1524
Prima facie evidence for removal of child custody VA Code §63.2-1525
Appeals of certain actions of local departments VA Code §63.2-1526

Appendix D: Virginia Supreme Court Rules (.pdf, 5 pages)

Joining offenses Sup. Ct. R. 3A:6(b)
Trial together of more than one offense Sup. Ct. R. 3A:10(c)
Discovery and Inspection Sup. Ct. R. 3A:11
Discovery Sup. Ct. R. 7C: 5
Discovery Sup. Ct. R. 8:15

Return to the DCJS Juvenile Services Resources Page.

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