Performance Outcomes For Law Enforcement Officers

Performance Outcomes For Law Enforcement Officers bscharf

Professionalism

Professionalism

Performance Outcome 1.1

Maintain knowledge of law enforcement work.

Training Objective Related to 1.1.

1. Given a written exercise, identify reasons why a law enforcement officer should maintain knowledge of law enforcement work, and resources available to assist with this.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

1.1.1. Three reasons to maintain knowledge of law enforcement work. 

1.1.2. Three resources and materials which a law enforcement officer could utilize to maintain knowledge of law enforcement work.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Reasons to maintain knowledge of law enforcement work:

a. Current information may impact on legality of arrests

b. New methods and technologies may offer improvements to procedures

c. Desire and dedication to doing a job well requires current knowledge

d. Professionalism comes through to the public from a knowledgeable officer

e. Current knowledge impacts the ability to move for career development 

f. Knowledge of new techniques and procedures may enhance the ability to assist prosecutors in obtaining convictions

2. Resources and materials which a law enforcement officer could utilize to maintain knowledge of law enforcement work:

a. Code of Virginia

b. Periodicals

c. Attorney General opinions

d. Federal, state Supreme Court decisions

e. Networking with other officers

f. FBI law enforcement bulletin

g. Magistrates Handbook (code index)

h. Gould book

i. Bureau of National Affairs law enforcement officer pocket manual

j. Department library/counsel/publications/policies and procedures

k. Legislative updates/selected acts

l. Virginia Supreme Court summaries of case decisions

m. In-service schools 

n. Local ordinances 

o. National Criminal Justice Reference Service 

p. Department of Criminal Justice Services 

q. Others as may be identified

Performance Outcome 1. 2.

Maintain a professional appearance with respect to clothing, grooming, and equipment.

Training Objectives Related to 1. 2.

1. Given a practical exercise, the trainee will be inspected to meet academy standards for clothing, grooming, and equipment.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

1.2.1. Professional appearance for a law enforcement officer regarding clothing and grooming.

1.2.2. Professional appearance for a law enforcement officer regarding personal equipment.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Professional appearance for a law enforcement officer regarding clothing and grooming.

2. Professional appearance for a law enforcement officer regarding personal equipment.

3. The importance to public perception of professionalism by presenting a well-groomed appearance for clothing and equipment.

4. The importance of establishing departmental esprit de corps by presenting a well-groomed appearance.

Performance Outcome 1.3.

Attend briefings or roll calls.

Training Objectives Related to 1.3.

1. Given a written exercise, identify the purpose for conducting briefings or roll calls.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

1.3.1. Reasons for attendance at briefings or roll calls:

1.3.1.1. Communication exchanges between shifts as preparation for patrol

1.3.1.2. Duty assignments and/or changes

1.3.1.3. Current information covered

1.3.1.4. Opportunity for questions/clarification

1.3.1.5. Others as may be identified.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Reasons for attendance at briefings or roll calls:

a. Communication exchanges between shifts as preparation for patrol

b. Duty assignments and/or changes

c. Current information covered

d. Opportunity for questions/clarification

e. Others as may be identified.

Performance Outcome 1. 4.

Maintain a courteous relationship with the public to foster a positive community relationship.

Training Objectives Related to 1. 4.

1. Given a written exercise, identify the impact that common courtesy may have regarding the relationship between law enforcement and the community.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

1.4.1. Reasons to foster a positive relationship between law enforcement and the public.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Reasons to foster a positive relationship between law enforcement and the public:

a. Develop and maintain open communications between law enforcement and the community

b. Reduce fear and mistrust by some members of the public, especially recent immigrants whose experience with law enforcement in other countries has been negative 

c. Enhance the officer’s ability to function as effectively as possible in carrying out daily duties 

d. Others, as may be identified.

2. Consequences that may result from a failure of common courtesy:

a. Lack of respect on the part of the officer toward a member of the public has a ripple effect beyond the immediate situation, i.e., the public may fail to call for assistance for an officer in trouble or ignore reporting crime

b. Negative attitudes toward law enforcement in general may develop from the actions of one officer

c. The officer’s ability to function effectively in carrying out daily duties will diminish should the officer become known as lacking in common courtesy

d. Others, as may be identified.

Performance Outcome 1. 5.

Behave in a fair and positive manner to develop and maintain a trust relationship with the citizenry.

Training Objectives Related to 1. 5.

Given a written exercise:

1. Identify the requirements for professionalism in law enforcement that impact the officer’s knowledge, skill, and ability to behave in a fair and positive manner.

2. Identify the requirements that will assist in developing and maintaining a trust relationship with the citizenry.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

1.5.1. Principles that define a profession.

1.5.2. Historical evolution of law enforcement in the United States.

1.5.3. Three elements of the criminal justice system.

1.5.4. The place of law enforcement and criminal justice in the structure of government.

1.5.5. The role of ethics in law enforcement:

1.5.5.1. General principles of ethics

1.5.5.2. Law Enforcement Code of Ethics:

1.5.5.2.1. Officer behavior

1.5.5.2.2. Officer dedication

1.5.5.2.3 Career development.

1.5.6. Methods of handling violations of professional, ethical, or legal standards of conduct on the part of fellow officers.

1.5.7. Positive and negative aspects of discretionary enforcement of laws.

1.5.8. Positive and negative influences of a law enforcement career on an officer’s personal life.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Identify principles that define a profession.

2. Identify the historical evolution of law enforcement in the United States:

a. Establishment of police force

b. Oath of office

c. Constitution and Bill of Rights.

3. Identify the three elements of the criminal justice system:

a. Courts:

1.  Federal system:

a. U. S. District Court 

b. U. S. Court of Appeals for the # Circuit (example: U. S. Court of Appeals for the 4th Circuit – Virginia is in this circuit)

c. U.S. Supreme Court

2.  State system:

a. Magistrates

b.  General District Courts

c. Circuit Courts 

d. Virginia Court of Appeals

e. Virginia Supreme Court

b.  Law Enforcement:

1.  Federal officers (in general)

2.  Sheriffs

3.  Police (local and state)

4. Other law enforcement agents

c.  Corrections:

1. Local corrections (jails, detention facilities)

2. State corrections.

4. Identify the place of law enforcement and criminal justice in the structure of government.

5. Define the role of ethics in law enforcement:

a. Identify two general principles of ethics that may assist an officer in making ethical judgments. 

b. Review the Law Enforcement Code of Ethics and its impact on the following:

1. Officer behavior on duty:

a. Reverence for the law

b.  Crime prevention

c.  Respect for the public

d.  Impartial law enforcement

e.  Attempt to use minimum force necessary to effect an arrest

f. Report only the truth

g. Testify only the truth

h. Never use public office for private gain

i. Strive to perform at maximum efficiency

j.  Never misuse police resources or confidential information.

2.  Officer behavior off-duty:

a.  Practice good citizenship, i.e., youth volunteer work, assist neighbors, be active in schools, etc. 

b. Maintain self-control, fair play and discipline in such areas as avoiding disputes, excessive use of alcohol, prejudicial conduct or interaction with people of different ethnic, religious, sexual and similar preferences, illegal gambling and others that may be identified.

3.  Officer dedication:

a.  Self (taking care of you will help you care for others)

b. Family

c.  Office

d.  Community

e.  State

f.  Country

4.  Career development:

a.  In-service training

b.  Resources for individual efforts:

1. Reading

2. Seeking out other law enforcement training

3. Using educational resources such as college courses

4. Others that may be identified.

6. Identify methods of handling violations of professional, ethical, or legal standards of conduct on the part of fellow officers.

7. Identify the positive and negative aspects of discretionary enforcement of laws.

a. Positive aspect: Give consideration to the violation and the violator, i.e., an elderly citizen on a fixed income may inadvertently run a red light and will benefit from a verbal warning rather than a ticket.

b. Negative aspect: Citizens watching an officer may conceive his enforcement of traffic laws is unfair when the officer allows a prominent citizen driving under the influence to simply park his vehicle and take a cab rather than arresting the violator.

8. Identify positive and negative influences of a law enforcement career on an officer’s personal life: 

a. Positive influences include, but are not limited to: 

1. Providing a role model to citizens, especially children 

2.  Saving lives 

3.  Preventing crime

4.  Safeguarding the principles of our nation as noted in the Constitution and the Bill of Rights 

5.  Others as may be identified.

b. Negative influences include, but are not limited to: 

1.  Constantly facing the possibility of death or serious injury 

2.  Divorce or strains on family relationships 

3.  Alcoholism 

4.  Mental health problems ranging from chronic stress to depression with the possibility of suicide 

5.  Others, as may be identified.

c. Bias:

1.  Define bias

2. Define discrimination

3.  Identify consequences of bias based policing

4.  Identify consequences of impartial law enforcement 

5.  Identify methods that an officer may use to prevent bias from determining a law enforcement intervention.

bscharf

Legal Issues

Legal Issues

Performance Outcome 2. 1.

Respond to request for service by determining whether the facts are civil or criminal.

Training Objectives Relating to 2. 1.

1. Given a written exercise, identify actions as civil or criminal matters.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.1.1. Define civil matter as an act that neither affects the common interest nor the community, nor does it violate a law or ordinance.

2.1.2. Define criminal matter as a violation of any law or ordinance that subjects the offender to public punishment.

2.1.3. Evaluate facts of a situation to determine if it is a civil or criminal matter by complying with statutory definitions of civil vs. criminal. 

2.1.4. Identify the resources for assistance in a civil matter.

2.1.5. Identify parameters for use of discretion by a law enforcement officer relating to a violation of law.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Define civil matter as an act that neither affects the common interest nor the community, nor does it violate a law or ordinance.

Case reference: Commonwealth v. Webb, 27 Va. (6 Rand.) 726 (1828).

2. Define criminal matter as a violation of any law or ordinance that subjects the offender to public punishment.

Case reference: Jernigan v. Commonwealth, 104 Va. 850, 52 SE 361 (1905).

3. Evaluate facts of a situation to determine if it is a civil or criminal matter by complying with statutory definitions of civil vs. criminal.

4. Identify the resources for assistance in a civil matter.

a. The person may go to the clerk of the district court or an attorney for assistance.

5. Identify parameters for use of discretion by a law enforcement officer relating to a violation of law.

Instructor Note: Advise trainees that they must identify department policy relating to explaining a violation of county or municipal ordinances that is the basis for a summons to the violator.  Advise trainees that they must identify department policy relating to use of discretion regarding a violation of law.

Performance Outcome 2. 2.

Research and acquire necessary information from relevant legal materials.

Training Objectives Related to 2. 2.

1. Given a written or practical exercise, identify crimes, code sections, classes of felonies and classes of misdemeanors.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.2.1. Given a written or practical exercise where the trainee is given the facts of a crime, identify the crime and code section using the Code of Virginia.

2.2.2. Given a written exercise, identify the classes of felonies and their punishments.

2.2.3. Given a written exercise, identify the classes of misdemeanors and their punishments.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. The types of laws and general subjects contained within the Code of Virginia:

a. Identify the classes of felonies and their punishments.

b. Identify the classes of misdemeanors and their punishments.

c. Differentiate between actual and attempted felonies and misdemeanors.

2. Index to the Code of Virginia.

3. The impact of case law on statutory law.

4. The difference between common law and statutory law.

Performance Outcome 2.3

Identify legal documents as civil or criminal in nature to determine the correct law enforcement response.

Training Objectives Related to 2.3

1. Given a written or practical exercise, identify court and legal documents as civil or criminal in nature and determine the correct law enforcement response.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.3.1. Family Abuse Orders:

2.3.1.1. Emergency Protective Orders (including telephonic orders)

2.3.1.2. Preliminary Protective Orders

2.3.1.3. Permanent Protective Orders

2.3.2. Lease

2.3.3. Mental Health Involuntary Commitment Orders:

2.3.3.1. Emergency Commitment Order

2.3.3.2. Temporary Detention Order

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Family Abuse Orders:

a. Emergency Protective Orders (including telephonic orders)

b. Preliminary Protective Orders

c. Permanent Protective Orders

2. Lease

3. Mental Health Involuntary Commitment Orders:

a. Emergency Commitment Order

b. Temporary Detention Order

4. Consult with supervisor if uncertain about any court or legal document.

Instructor Note: Advise trainees that they must identify filing and record keeping procedures for court and legal documents within their department as part of their department training.

Performance Outcome 2. 4.

Obtain an arrest warrant from proper authority.

Training Objectives Related to 2. 4.

1. Given a written or practical exercise, identify the proper authority from whom to obtain an arrest warrant, the information that must be presented to support a warrant, and return requirements.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following: 

2.4.1. Identify the proper authorities from which an arrest warrant may be obtained according to 19.2-71 and Rule 3A:3 of the Rules of the Supreme Court of Virginia.

2.4.2. Identify the information that must be provided to support a warrant.

2.4.3. Return arrest warrant conforming to statutory requirements. 

2.4.4. Circumstances under which a felony warrant may be issued by a magistrate on a citizen complaint.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. The proper authorities from which an arrest warrant may be obtained according to 19.2-71 and Rule 3A:3 of the Rules of the Supreme Court of Virginia:

a. Judge

b. Clerk of any circuit, general district, or family court

c. Magistrate

2. The information that must be provided to support a warrant:

a. The crime

b. The facts that support probable cause

c. How these facts relate to the suspect(s)

3. Return of arrest warrant conforming to statutory requirements:

a. Officer endorsement of the warrant

b. Return to a judicial officer with authority to grant bail

4. Circumstances under which a felony warrant may be issued by a magistrate on a citizen complaint.

Performance Outcome 2. 5.

Answer questions regarding the progress of a case according to rules of privacy and security controlling access to records.

Training Objectives Relating to 2. 5.

1. Given a written exercise, identify basic laws governing rules of privacy and security to control access to records.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.5.1. Freedom of Information Act principles.

2.5.2. Privacy Act principles.

2.5.3. Statutes relating to criminal history records/juvenile information.

2.5.4. Statutes relating to release of information through NCIC or VCIN.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Freedom of Information Act principles (§§2.2-37042.2-3705.22.2-3706, and 2.2-3714).

2. Privacy Act principles (§2.2-3800).

3. Statutes relating to criminal history records/juvenile information (§§15.2-172216.1-300, 16.1-30119.2- 389, and 19.2-389.1).

4. Statutes relating to release of information through NCIC or VCIN (§§19.2-389 and 19.2- 389.1).

Performance Outcome 2. 6.

Take juvenile offenders into custody.

Training Objectives Relating to 2. 6.

1. Given a written exercise, identify constitutional and Code of Virginia requirements for taking juvenile offenders into custody.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.6.1. Define child in need of services and child in need of supervision with Code citations (§16.1-228):

2.6.1.1. Purpose and intent of juvenile law

2.6.1.2. Child in need of supervision or delinquent child

2.6.2. Identify the only instances when a juvenile may be taken into immediate custody according to Code:

2.6.2.1. With a written detention order

2.6.2.2. When the juvenile is in need of services and there is a clear danger to the child’s life or health

2.6.2.3. For a crime committed in the officer’s presence and the officer believes it necessary for the protection of the public

2.6.2.4. For (i) shoplifting, (ii) assault and battery, and (iii) weapon on school property

2.6.2.5. When the juvenile has committed an offense which would be a felony if committed by an adult

2.6.2.6. Runaway or escape from a residential child care facility or home where placed by the Courts or other agency

2.6.2.7. When the juvenile is in need of inpatient treatment for mental illness

2.6.2.8. Runaway from home or where there is no adult supervision at such hours and under such circumstances where there is a substantial danger to the child’s welfare

2.6.2.9. Curfew violations

2.6.3. Identify the two instances in which a warrant may be issued for a juvenile by a magistrate:

2.6.3.1. On an appeal from a decision of an intake officer

2.6.3.2. When a juvenile is in need of services or delinquent and the court is not open or intake officer is not reasonably available, which means neither the judge nor the intake officer could arrive within one hour after contacted

2.6.4. Identify the procedures to be taken after a juvenile has been placed in custody:

2.6.4.1. When in custody by way of written petition, take juvenile before judge or intake officer

2.6.4.2. When in custody by reason of need of services, protection of the public, or shoplifting, take juvenile before intake officer

2.6.4.3. Warrant is to be delivered forthwith to the Juvenile & Domestic Relations Court

2.6.4.4. Summonses to be given to child and parents and/or guardians

2.6.5. Identify the requirements for the separation of juveniles from other prisoners:

2.6.5.1. Child must be kept entirely separate and removed from adult jail population

2.6.5.2. Child must be transported separately from adults.

2.6.6. Identify the requirement of advising a juvenile of his/her constitutional rights when conducting a custodial interrogation:

2.6.6.1. Juvenile to be advised of right to counsel

2.6.6.2. Same Miranda rights apply as to those of adults, except it is recommended that parent/guardian be present if possible.

2.6.6.3. Statements given at intake are NOT admissible.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Define child in need of services and child in need of supervision with Code citations (§16.1-228):

a. Purpose and intent of juvenile law, §16.1-227

b. Child in need of supervision or delinquent child, §16.1-228

2. The only instances when a juvenile may be taken into immediate custody according to Code §16.1-246:

a. With a written detention order

b. When the juvenile is in need of services and there is a clear danger to the child’s life or health

c. For a crime committed in the officer’s presence and the officer believes it necessary for the protection of the public

d. For (i) shoplifting, (ii) assault and battery, and (iii) weapon on school property

e. When the juvenile has committed an offense that would be a felony if committed by an adult

f. Runaway or escape from a residential child care facility or home where placed by the Courts or other agency

g. When the juvenile is in need of inpatient treatment for mental illness

h. Runaway from home or where there is no adult supervision at such hours and under such circumstances where there is a substantial danger to the child’s welfare

i. Curfew violations

3. The two instances in which a warrant may be issued for a juvenile by a magistrate (§16.1-256):

a. On an appeal from a decision of an intake officer

b. When a juvenile is in need of services or delinquent and the court is not opened or intake officer is not reasonably available, (meaning neither the judge nor the intake officer could arrive within one hour after contacted)

4. The procedures to be taken after a juvenile has been placed in custody (§16.1-260 and 16.1-247):

a. When in custody by way of written petition, take juvenile before judge or intake officer

b. When in custody by reason of need of services, protection of the public, or shoplifting, take juvenile before intake officer

c. Warrant is to be delivered forthwith to the J & DR Court

d. Summonses to be given to child and parents and/or guardians (§16.1-263)

e. Fingerprinting and photographing juveniles (§16.1-299).

5. The requirements for the separation of juveniles from other prisoners (§16.1-249(E) and 16.1-254):

a. Child must be kept entirely separate and removed from adult jail population

b. Child must be transported separately from adults.

6. The requirement of advising a juvenile of his/her constitutional rights when conducting a custodial interrogation (§16.1-263):

a. Juvenile to be advised of right to counsel

b. Same Miranda rights apply as to those of adults, except it is recommended that parent/guardian be present if possible.

c. Statements given at intake are NOT admissible (§16.1-261).

Instructor Note: Advise trainees that they will need to identify department policy and procedure related to handling juvenile complaints and treatment of juvenile offenders as part of department training.

*Special Note: In 2004, the Code of Virginia was amended to require that all duly constituted police authorities shall take fingerprints and photographs of any juvenile who is taken into custody and charged with a delinquent act for which, if committed by an adult, is required to be reported to the Central Criminal Records Exchange pursuant to subsection A of § 19.2-390.

Performance Outcome 2. 7.

Serve mental health commitment papers.

Training Objectives Relating to 2. 7.

1. Given a written exercise, identify Code of Virginia requirements for serving mental health commitment papers (emergency custody orders or temporary detention orders only).

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.7.1. Define emergency custody orders and temporary detention orders and situations in which these would be utilized.

2.7.2. Identify persons having authority to issue an emergency custody order or temporary detention order.

2.7.3. Identify procedures for emergency custody order or temporary detention order return of service.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Definition of emergency custody orders and temporary detention orders and situations in which these would be utilized.

2. Identification of persons having authority to issue an emergency custody order or temporary detention order (judge or magistrate).

3. Procedures for emergency custody order or temporary detention order return of service.

a. Return service promptly to the clerk’s office stating the date and manner of service and to whom service was made

4. Service of mental health commitment papers is the same as service and return of any other civil judicial process.

5. Service is not restricted but is applicable statewide (§8.01-292).

6. Copy of papers must be served to the person to be committed or to a person found at the normal place of abode (§37.2-808 and 37.2-809).

7. Emergency commitments (involuntary detention), (§§37.2-80837.2-80937.2-810).

Instructor Note: Advise trainees that they must identify department policy related to administrative handling of cases involving mental illness/abnormal behavior as part of their department training.

Performance Outcome 2. 8.

Apply knowledge of law related to a death.

Training Objectives Relating to 2. 8.

1. Given a written exercise, identify elements of crimes relating to death.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.8.1. Define various types of crimes related to death with elements of the crime and Code citations:

2.8.1.1. Aggravated murder

2.8.1.2. First and second degree murder

2.8.1.3. Felony homicide

2.8.1.4. Voluntary manslaughter

2.8.1.5. Involuntary manslaughter

2.8.2. Define suicide.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Define various types of crimes related to death with elements of the crime and Code citations:

a. Aggravated murder, §18.2-31

b. First and second degree murder, §18.2-32 (case law definitions)

c. Felony homicide, §18.2-33

d. Voluntary manslaughter, §18.2-35

e. Involuntary manslaughter, §18.2-36, 18.2-36.1, 18.2-36.2

2. Define suicide.

Performance Outcome 2. 9.

Apply knowledge of law related to a rape or sexual assault.

Training Objectives Relating to 2. 9.

1. Given a written exercise, identify the elements of and crime classifications for various types of sexual assault.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.9.1. Define various types of sexual assault investigations and crime classifications of the offenses with Code citations:

2.9.1.1. Rape

2.9.1.2. Carnal knowledge of a child age 13 up to age15

2.9.1.3. Forcible sodomy

2.9.1.4. Inanimate sexual object penetration

2.9.1.5. Aggravated sexual battery

2.9.1.6. Sexual battery

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Define various types of sexual assault investigations, elements of the crimes, and crime classifications of the offenses:

a. Rape, §18.2-61

b. Carnal knowledge of a child age 13 up to age 15, §18.2-63

c. Forcible sodomy, §18.2-67.1

d. Inanimate sexual object penetration, §18.2-67.2

e. Aggravated sexual battery, §18.2-67.3

f. Sexual battery, §18.2-67.4

Performance Outcome 2.10.

Apply knowledge of the law related to robbery.

Training Objectives Relating to 2.10.

1. Given a written exercise, identify elements and crime classifications of robbery with Code citations.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.10.1. Define robbery and the elements of the crime.

2.10.2. Define carjacking and elements of the crime.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan guide should include the following:

1. Define robbery, the elements of the crime, and the punishments. (§18.2-58).

2. Define carjacking, the elements of the crime and the punishments. (§18.2-58.1).

Performance Outcome 2.11.

Apply knowledge of the law related to felony wounding or misdemeanor assault and battery.

Training Objectives Relating to 2.11.

1. Given a written exercise, identify elements of and crime classification for felony wounding or misdemeanor assault and battery with Code citations.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.11.1. Identify elements of felony wounding or battery.

2.11.2. Identify the elements of misdemeanor assault and battery.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Identify elements of felony wounding or battery with Code citations:

a. Malicious wounding or battery (§18.2-51)

b. Unlawful wounding:

1. Shoot, stab, cut, wound or cause bodily injury

2. With intent to maim, disfigure, disable or kill

3. With malice vs. unlawful

2. Identify the elements of misdemeanor assault and battery:

a. Assault: an attempted battery, or threat with the present ability to carry out the threat. 

b. Battery: any rude, angry, or vengeful touching; unlawful touching of persons the age of 13 or over may constitute common law assault and battery (cross-reference sexual battery).

Performance Outcome 2.12.

Apply knowledge of the law related to a residential, commercial, or industrial burglary.

Training Objectives Relating to 2.12.

1. Given a written exercise, identify elements of and crime classifications for a residential, commercial, or industrial burglary.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.12.1. Identify categories related to burglary offenses and the elements of the crimes with Code citations.

2.12.2. Identify elements of trespassing.

2.12.3. Identify elements of unlawful entry.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Identify categories related to burglary offenses and the elements of the crimes with Code citations:

a. Burglary, §18.2-89

b. Entering dwelling house with intent to commit murder, rape, or robbery, §18.2-90

c. Entering dwelling house with intent to commit larceny, assault and battery or other felony, §18.2-91

d. Breaking and entering dwelling house with intent to commit assault or other misdemeanor, §18.2-92

e. Possession of burglarious tools, etc., §18.2-94.

2. Identify elements of trespassing §18.2-119 to 18.2-136.1.

3. Identify elements of unlawful entry §18.2-121.

Performance Outcome 2.13.

Apply knowledge of the law related to a larceny, motor theft, extortion, and embezzlement.

Training Objectives for 2.13.

1. Given a written exercise, identify the elements and crime classifications of larceny, attempted or actual motor vehicle theft, extortion, and embezzlement with Code citations.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.13.1. Define various types of larceny and elements of the crimes.

2.13.2. Distinguish between larceny of a vehicle, unauthorized use of a vehicle and embezzlement of a vehicle.

2.13.3. Define the elements of the crime of receiving, concealing, or buying stolen property.

2.13.4. Identify punishments associated with the crime of receiving, concealing or buying stolen property.

2.13.5. Define extortion and elements of the crime.

2.13.6. Identify punishments associated with the crime of extortion.

2.13.7. Define embezzlement and elements of the crime.

2.13.8. Identify punishments associated with the crime of embezzlement.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Define various types of larceny and elements of the crimes with Code citations:

a. Grand larceny, §18.2-95

1. Distinguish between grand larceny of a vehicle, unauthorized use, and embezzlement, §18.2-102,  §18.2-108, §18.2-111 

b. Petit larceny, §18.2-96

1. Third offense a felony

c. Shoplifting and concealing merchandise.

2. Define the elements of the crime involving stolen property with Code citations:

a. Concealing stolen property, §18.2-108

b. Shoplifting, §18.2-103 - 18.2-105

c. Distinguish between the presumption of larceny arising from recent unexplained possession of stolen property and the crime of receiving, buying or concealing stolen property.

3. Identify punishments associated with the crime of larceny:

a. Felony if value is equal to or greater than $1000

b. Misdemeanor if value is less than $1000

c. Subsequent offenses

4. Define extortion and elements of the crime, §18.2-59.

5. Identify punishments associated with the crime of extortion.

6. Define embezzlement and elements of the crime, §18.2-111.

7. Identify punishments associated with the crime of embezzlement.

Instructor Note: Advise trainees that they will need to identify department policy relating to the handling of shoplifting complaints as part of department training.

Performance Outcome 2.14.

Apply knowledge of the law relating to trespassing, destruction of property/vandalism, or a hate crime.

Training Objectives Relating to 2.14.

1. Given a written exercise, identify the elements of trespassing/destruction of property/vandalism, and hate crimes with Code citations.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.14.1. Define malicious mischief/destruction of property and elements of the crime.

2.14.2. Identify elements of trespassing.

2.14.3. Identify enhanced penalties that may accompany certain crimes based on motives.

2.14.4. Identify other crimes to which §18.2-121 may apply.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Define trespassing and elements of the crime with Code citations:

a. Damaging property, §18.2-121 and §18.2-137

b. Unlawfully destroy, deface, damage, or remove without intent to steal another’s property

2. Class I misdemeanor if less than $1000 value.

3. Class 6 felony if $1000 or more.

4. Identify enhanced penalties that may accompany certain crimes based on motives (§18.2-57, §18.2-420, §18.2-121).

5. Identify other crimes to which §18.2-121 may apply.

6. Identify elements of trespassing §18.2-119 to 18.2-136.1 and §18.2-160.2 related to trespassing on public transportation.

Performance Outcome 2.15.

Apply knowledge of the law related to suspicious fires.

Training Objectives Relating to 2.15.

1. Given a written exercise, identify the elements of crimes related to suspicious fires.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.15.1. Define arson and elements of the crime.

2.15.2. Define threat or use of illegal explosive devices and elements of the crime.

2.15.3. Identify other offenses involving burning or use of explosive devices.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Define arson and elements of the crime with Code citations, §18.2-77 to §18.2-82.

2. Define threat or use of illegal explosive devices and elements of the crime with Code citations, §18.2-83 to §18.2-85.

3. Identify other offenses involving burning or use of explosive devices.

Performance Outcome 2.16.

Apply knowledge of the law relating to forgery/uttering and counterfeiting.

Training Objectives Relating to 2.16.

1. Given a written exercise, identify the elements and crime classifications relating to forgery/uttering and counterfeiting.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.16.1. Define forgery and uttering and elements of the crime.

2.16.2. Define counterfeiting and elements of the crime.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Define forgery and uttering and elements of the crime with Code citations, §18.2-172 .

2. Define counterfeiting and elements of the crime with Code citations, §18.2-170.

Performance Outcome 2.17.

Apply knowledge of the law relating to fraud.

Training Objectives Relating to 2.17.

1. Given a written exercise, identify the elements and crime classifications of fraud.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.17.1. Define fraud and elements of the crime.

2.17.2. Department of Motor Vehicles Fraud § 46.2-105.2

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Define fraud and elements of the crime with Code citations, §18.2-186.

2. Department of Motor Vehicles Fraud § 46.2-105.2

Performance Outcome 2.18.

Apply knowledge of the law relating to a weapons/firearm offenses.

Training Objectives Relating to 2.18.

1. Given a written exercise, identify the elements and crime classifications relating to weapons/firearms offenses.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.18.1. Define weapons/firearms offenses and elements of the crimes.

2.18.1.1. Concealed weapons

2.18.1.2. Sawed-off shotguns

2.18.1.3. Possession of firearm by convicted felon

2.18.1.4. Possession of firearm coincident with Schedule I or II drug offense

2.18.1.5. Possession of firearm during commission of a felony

2.18.1.6. Possession of a firearm while under a protective order

2.18.1.7. Possession of ammunition by a convicted felon.

2.18.2. Prohibition of purchase of firearm by person adjudicated legally incompetent or mentally incompetent (§18.2-308.1:2) or involuntarily admitted to an inpatient facility or involuntarily ordered to outpatient treatment and prohibited from purchasing a firearm pursuant to § 18.2-308.1:3

2.18.3. Prohibition of possession of firearm by person who committed felonies while a juvenile (§18.2-308.2)

2.18.4. Prohibition of possession of firearm by persons not lawfully in United States (§18.2- 308.2:01)

2.18.5. Identify how to determine whether or not a suspect has been subject to involuntary commitment, mandatory outpatient treatment, or been released from voluntary admission after issuance from a temporary detention order and had purchased a weapon, possessed a weapon, or transported a weapon and if so, notify the Central Criminal Records Exchange.

2.18.6. Identify how to determine whether or not a suspect is in violation of §18.2-308.2 (juvenile offender records)

2.18.7. Identify how to determine if the suspect is in violation of §18.2-308.2:01 (illegal alien restrictions)

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Define weapons/firearms offenses and elements of the crimes with Code citations,

a. Concealed weapons, §18.2-308

b. Sawed-off shotguns, §18.2-299 to 18.2-307

c. Possession of firearm by convicted felon, §18.2-308.2

d. Possession of firearm coincident with Schedule I or II drug offense, §18.2-308.4

e. Possession of firearm during commission of a felony, §18.2-53.1

f. Possession of a firearm while under a protective order, §18.2-308.1:4

g. Possession of a machete (§18.2-308) or brandishing a machete (§18.2-282.1)

h. Possession of ammunition by a convicted felon (§18.2-308.2)

2. Prohibition of purchase of firearm by person adjudicated legally incompetent or mentally incompetent (§18.2-308.1:2) or involuntarily admitted to an inpatient facility or involuntarily ordered to outpatient treatment and prohibited from purchasing a firearm pursuant to §18.2-308.1:3

3. Prohibition of possession of firearm by person who committed felonies while a juvenile (§18.2-308.2)

4. Prohibition of possession of firearm by persons not lawfully in United States (§18.2-308.2:01)

5. Identify the legal basis that allows retired officers in good standing to carry a weapon anywhere in the United States and the procedure for identifying oneself as a retired officer.

6. Identify how to determine whether or not a suspect has been subject to involuntary commitment, mandatory outpatient treatment, or been released from voluntary admission after issuance from a temporary detention order and had purchased a weapon, possessed a weapon, or transported a weapon and if so, notify the Central Criminal Records Exchange.

7. Identify how to determine whether or not a suspect is in violation of §18.2-308.2 (juvenile offender records)

8. Identify how to determine if the suspect is in violation of §18.2-308.2:01 (illegal alien restrictions)

Performance Outcome 2.19.

Apply knowledge of the law relating to prostitution and sex offenses.

Training Objectives Relating to 2.19.

1. Given a written exercise, identify the elements of and crime classifications relating to prostitution and other sex offenses.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.19.1. Define sex offenses and elements of the crimes.

2.19.1.1. Fornication (Repealed)

2.19.1.2. Lewd and lascivious cohabitation (Repealed)

2.19.1.3. Keeping, residing in or frequenting a bawdy place

2.19.1.4. Aiding prostitution or illicit sexual intercourse

2.19.1.5. Using vehicles to promote prostitution or unlawful sexual intercourse

2.19.1.6. Receiving money for procuring person

2.19.1.7. Receiving money from earnings of male or female prostitute

2.19.1.8. Transporting person for purpose of a sex offense

2.19.1.9. Crimes against nature

2.19.2. Define sex offenses against children and elements of the crime (§18.2-370 through §18.2-371)

2.19.3. Identify components of unlawful filming, videotaping or photographing of another (§18.2-386.1)

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Define sex offenses and elements of the crimes.

a. Fornication, §18.2-344

b. Lewd and lascivious cohabitation, §18.2-345 (Repealed)

c. Keeping, residing in or frequenting a bawdy place, §18.2-347

d. Aiding prostitution or illicit sexual intercourse, §18.2-346 - §18.2-348

e. Using vehicles to promote prostitution or unlawful sexual intercourse, §18.2-349

f. Receiving money for procuring person, §18.2-356

g. Receiving money from earnings of male or female prostitute, §18.2-357

h. Transporting person for purpose of a sex offense, §18.2-348

i. Crimes against nature, §18.2-361

2. Define sex offenses against children and elements of the crime (§18.2-370 through §18.2-371)

3. Identify components of unlawful filming, videotaping or photographing of another (§18.2-386.1)

Performance Outcome 2.20.

Apply knowledge of the law relating to gambling.

Training Objectives Relating to 2.20.

1. Given a written exercise, identify the elements of crime classifications relating to gambling offenses.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.20.1. Define gambling and elements of the crime.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Define gambling and elements of the crime, §18.2-325

Performance Outcome 2.21.

Apply knowledge of the law relating to controlled substances.

Training Objectives Relating to 2.21.

1. Given a written exercise, identify the elements of and crime classifications relating to controlled substances.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.21.1. Define controlled substances and elements of the crimes.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan guide should include the following:

1. Define controlled substances and elements of the crimes, §18.2-248 to §18.2-265.

Performance Outcomes 2.22.                                               

Apply knowledge of the law relating to disorderly conduct.

Training Objectives Relating to 2.22.

1. Given a written exercise, identify the elements relating to disorderly conduct.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.22.1. Define disorderly conduct and identify elements of the crime.

2.22.2. Distinguish between disorderly conduct and breach of the peace.

2.22.3. Distinguish between Code of Virginia and local ordinances.

2.22.4. Identify offenses related to use of profane, threatening or indecent language over public airways or by computer or text.

2.22.5. Describe the relationship between disorderly conduct and all other provisions of Title 18.2 as set out in Battle v. Commonwealth, 50 Va. App. 135 (2007).

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Define disorderly conduct and identify elements of the crime with Code citations, §18.2-415

2. Distinguish between disorderly conduct and breach of the peace. Breach of the peace is a more general phrase and referenced in the Code in a variety of places: §8.01-45, §18.2-416, §18.2-417, §18.2-464, §18.2-463.

3. Distinguish between Code of Virginia and local ordinances as appropriate.

4. Identify offenses related to use of profane, threatening or indecent language over public airways or by computer or text.

5. Describe the relationship between disorderly conduct and all other provisions of Title 18.2 as set out in Battle v. Commonwealth, 50 Va. App. 135 (2007).

Performance Outcome 2.23 is retiredKey components were moved to other standards.

Performance Outcome 2.24.

Apply knowledge of the law relating to stalking.

Training Objectives Relating to 2.24.

1. Given a written exercise, identify the elements of stalking.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.24.1. Define stalking and identify elements of the crime with Code citations.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Define stalking and identify elements of the crime with Code citations. §18.2-60.3

Performance Outcome 2.25.

Apply knowledge of the law relating to establishing local ordinances.

Training Objectives Relating to 2.25.

1. Given a written exercise, identify the Code related to establishing local ordinances.

2. Given a written exercise, identify the Code providing localities the authority to establish local ordinances relating to loitering and curfews.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.25.1. Identify the Code citation enabling local counties, cities, and towns to establish local ordinances.

2.25.2. Identify the Code citation enabling local counties, cities, and towns to establish local ordinances that affect loitering and curfew violations.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Identify the Code citation enabling local counties, cities, and towns to establish local ordinances. (§15.2-1425) (§15.2-1429)

2. Identify the Code citation enabling local counties, cities, and towns to establish local ordinances that affect loitering/curfew violations. (§15.2-926)

Performance Outcome 2.26.

Apply knowledge of the law relating to firearm related incidents.

Training Objectives Relating to 2.26.

1. Given a written exercise, identify elements of crimes relating to firearms incidents.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.26.1. Identify possible crimes associated with firearms with Code citations

2.26.1.1. Reckless handling of a firearm

2.26.1.2. Discharge of a firearm in an occupied dwelling

2.26.1.3. Brandishing a firearm

2.26.1.4. Hunting while under the influence of alcohol

2.26.1.5. Shooting near a roadway

2.26.1.6. Failure to secure weapons resulting in injury to a child

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Identify possible crimes associated with firearms with Code citations

a. Reckless handling of a firearm, §18.2-56.1

b. Discharge of a firearm in an occupied dwelling, §18.2-279

c. Brandishing a firearm, §18.2-282

d. Hunting while under the influence of alcohol, §18.2-285

e. Shooting near a roadway, §18.2-286

f. Failure to secure weapons resulting in an injury to a child, §18.2-56.2

Performance Outcome 2.27.

Apply knowledge of the law relating to a public drinking violation.

Training Objectives Relating to 2.27.

1. Given a written exercise, identify criminal violations relating to public drinking violations.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.27.1. Open container of alcoholic beverage in motor vehicles

2.27.2. Drinking in a public place

2.27.3. Possession of alcohol by minors

2.27.4. Sale of alcohol to minors

2.27.5. Public intoxication

2.27.6. Possession of alcohol on school grounds

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Open container of alcoholic beverage in motor vehicles, §18.2-323.1

2. Drinking in a public place, §4.1-308

3. Possession of alcohol by minors, § 4.1-305

4. Sale of alcohol to minors, § 4.1-304

5. Public intoxication, §4.1-308

6. Possession of alcohol on school grounds, §4.1-309

Performance Outcome 2.28.

Apply knowledge of the law relating to an abducted person.

Training Objectives Relating to 2.28.

1. Given a written exercise, identify elements of the crimes relating to abducted persons.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.28.1. Define the various types of criminal violations related to abduction:

2.28.1.1. Abduction as an element of Aggravated Murder

2.28.1.2. Imprisonment as an element of first degree murder

2.28.1.3. Defining abduction/kidnapping

2.28.1.4. Abduction with intent to extort money or for immoral purposes

2.28.1.5. Abduction by a prisoner

2.28.1.6. Threatening, attempting, or assisting in such abduction

2.28.1.7. Parental abduction

2.28.1.8. Requirement to disclose information and assist law enforcement

2.28.1.9. Emergency control of telephone in hostage situation

2.28.1.10. Abduction with intent to subject a person to forced labor or services

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Define the various types of criminal violations related to abduction:

a. Abduction as an element of Aggravated Murder, §18.2-31

b. Imprisonment as an element of first degree murder, §18.2-32

c. Defining abduction/kidnapping, §18.2-47

d. Abduction with intent to extort money or for immoral purposes, §18.2-48

e. Abduction by a prisoner, §18.2-48.1

f. Threatening, attempting, or assisting in such abduction, §18.2-49

g. Parental abduction, §18.2-49.1

h. Requirement to disclose information and assist law enforcement, §18.2-50

i. Emergency control of telephone in hostage situation, §18.2-50.2

j. Abduction with intent to subject a person to forced labor or services, §18.2-47

Performance Outcome 2.29.

Apply knowledge of the law to crimes related to family abuse or family offenses.

Training Objectives Related to 2.29.

1. Given a written exercise, identify elements of the crimes related to family abuse or family offenses.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.29.1. Define the following:

2.29.1.1. Family abuse

2.29.1.2. Family offenses

2.29.1.3. Family or household member

2.29.2. Identify the elements of the statutes that provide relevant law

2.29.2.1. Definitions

2.29.2.2. Jurisdiction

2.29.2.3. Venue

2.29.2.4. Preliminary protective order

2.29.2.5. Preliminary protective orders in cases of family abuse

2.29.2.6.Violations of provisions of protective orders

2.29.2.7. Emergency protective orders authorized in cases of family abuse

2.29.2.8. Criminal jurisdiction; protective orders; family offenses

2.29.2.9. Protective order in cases of family abuse

2.29.2.10. Purchase or transportation of firearms by person subject to protective orders

2.29.2.11. Assault and battery against a household member

2.29.2.12. Stalking

2.29.2.13. Arrest without warrant authorized in certain cases

2.29.2.14. Arrest without a warrant authorized in cases of assault and battery against a family member and for violations of protective orders

2.29.2.15. Court orders pending suit for divorce, custody, visitation; entry into VCIN

2.29.2.16. Emergency protective order authorized in cases of stalking

2.29.2.17. Preliminary protective order authorized in cases of stalking

2.29.2.18. Protective order authorized in cases of stalking

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Definitions for the following:

a. Family abuse

b. Family offenses

c. Household or family member

2. Statutes that provide relevant law

a. Definitions, §16.1-228

b. Jurisdiction, §16.1-241

c. Venue, §16.1-243

d. Preliminary protective order, §16.1-253

e. Preliminary protective orders in cases of family abuse, §16.1-253.1

f. Violations of provisions of protective orders, §16.1-253.2

g. Emergency protective orders authorized in cases of family abuse, ?§16.1-253.4

h. Criminal jurisdiction; protective orders; family offenses, §16.1-278.14

i. Protective order in cases of family abuse, § 16.1-279.1

j. Purchase or transportation of firearms by person subject to protective orders, §18.2-308.1:4

k. Assault and battery against a household member, § 18.2-57.2

l. Stalking, §18.2-60.3

m. Arrest without warrant authorized in certain cases, §19.2-81

n. Arrest without a warrant authorized in cases of assault and battery against a family member and for violations of protective orders, §19.2-81.3

o. Court orders pending suit for divorce, custody, visitation; entry into VCIN, §20-103

p. Emergency protective order authorized in cases of stalking, §19.2-152.8

q. Preliminary protective order authorized in cases of stalking, §19.2-152.9

r. Protective order authorized in cases of stalking, §19.2-152.10

Performance Outcome 2.30.

Apply knowledge of law to obtain information from a suspect conforming to constitutional requirements.

Training Objectives Related to 2.30.

1. Given a written or practical exercise, identify constitutional requirements to obtain information from a suspect.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.30.1. Identify constitutional issues related to detention and questioning of a suspect vs. a non-suspect. 

2.30.2. Identify the relevant cases regarding suspect interrogation:

2.30.2.1. Malloy v. Hogan, 378 U.S. 1 (1964)

2.30.2.2. Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S. 436 (1966)

2.30.2.3. Massiah v. United States, 377 U.S. 201 (1964)

2.30.3. Identify the two conditions which together trigger the necessity for Miranda warnings.

2.30.4. Explain the difference between an exculpatory and inculpatory statement and the necessity for documenting both. 

2.30.5. Identify the conditions by which a confession will be judged to be admissible.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. The rights of an arrested person as guaranteed by the U. S. Constitution.

2. Identify constitutional issues related to detention and questioning of a suspect vs. a non-suspect.

3. Identify the relevant cases regarding suspect interrogation:

a. Malloy v. Hogan, 378 U.S. 1 (1964)

b. Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S. 436 (1966)

c. Massiah v. United States, 377 U.S. 201 (1964)

d. Ford v. Commonwealth, 503 S.E.2d 803, 28 Va. App 249, (1998)

e. Novak v. Commonwealth, 457 S.E. 2d 402, 20 Va. App.373, (1995)

f. Wass v. Commonwealth, 359 S.E. 2d 836, 5 Va. App. 27, (1987)

g. Lanier v. Commonwealth, 394 S.E. 2d 495, 10 Va. App. 541, (1990)

4. Identify the two conditions which together trigger the necessity for Miranda warnings:

a. In custody AND

b. Police interrogation.

5. Identify use of consent forms and waiver forms

6. Explain the difference between an exculpatory and inculpatory statement and the necessity for documenting both.

7. Identify the conditions by which a confession will be judged to be admissible.

8. Identify the constitutional basis for the Miranda warning and read the warning

a. Identify the point at which the suspect should be advised of constitutional rights.

b. Read the complete Miranda warning.

9. Identify the consequences for a person who gives a false identity to a law enforcement officer after having been lawfully detained and requested to identify himself, §19.2-82.1.

Performance Outcomes 2.31.                                     

Conduct searches and seizures under the following conditions:  with and without a warrant, incident to hot pursuit, with or without consent, incident to arrest, confer with the local Commonwealth’s Attorney under unusual search and seizure circumstances, identify procedures for obtaining records from an electronic communication service or remote computing service (including foreign corporations) pursuant to a search warrant.

Training Objectives Relating to 2.31.

Given a written or practical exercise:

1. Identify those search and seizure situations in which the 4th Amendment mandates a warrant,

2. Identify search and seizure situations in which a warrantless search may be legally conducted.

3. Identify situations that warrant conferring with the local Commonwealth’s Attorney for guidance.

4. Complete an affidavit for a search warrant.

5. Identify proper authority for obtaining the warrant.

6. Identify return requirements.

7. Identify the circumstances under which an out-of-state warrant may be served by electronic means.

8. Identify procedures for obtaining records from an electronic communication service or remote computing service (including foreign corporations) pursuant to a search warrant.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.31.1. Identify the reason that searches generally require a warrant.

2.31.2. Identify the reason that search warrants must be obtained for crime scenes except in emergency circumstances.

2.31.3. Identify the proper authorities from which a search warrant may be obtained:

2.31.3.1. Judge

2.31.3.2. Magistrate

2.31.3.3. Other person with authority to issue criminal warrants in the jurisdiction of the place to be searched

2.31.4. Complete a sample affidavit:

2.31.4.1. Description of place, thing, or person to be searched

2.31.4.2. Description of things or persons to be searched for

2.31.4.3. The offense causing the search

2.31.4.4. Thing(s) being searched for is/are evidence of the offense

2.31.4.5. Any other material facts that show probable cause to issue search warrant

2.31.5. State facts and circumstances that would lead a reasonable person to believe the seizable items are located in the area to be searched.

2.31.6. Identify Code of Virginia requirements for return of search warrant:

2.31.6.1. Date of execution of warrant, signature, and time noted on warrant

2.31.6.2. Under oath, inventory all property seized

2.31.6.3. File in circuit court clerk's office of the jurisdiction where the search warrant was served within three days the search warrant, inventory, and affidavit  Retired

2.31.6.4. The officer who seized the property or executed the search warrant, or his designee or agent, may file the warrant, inventory, and accompanying affidavit by delivering them in person, or by mailing them certified mail, return receipt requested, or delivering them by electronically transmitted facsimile.

2.31.6.5. Identify requirements for a return in accordance with §19.2-56 and §19.2-57.

2.31.6.5.1. location for filing the return: executed and issued

2.31.6.5.2. timeline for filing and computation exceptions

2.31.7. Identify requirements for warrantless search of premises or property for suspect incident to hot pursuit conforming to constitutional requirements and Code of Virginia:

2.31.7.1. Define the hot pursuit exception to warrant requirements.

2.31.7.2. Identify the circumstances that justify hot pursuit.

2.31.7.3. Define the scope of a search incident to hot pursuit.

2.31.8. Identify the circumstances under which an out-of-state warrant may be served by electronic means.

2.31.9. Identify procedures for obtaining records from an electronic communication service or remote computing service (including foreign corporations) pursuant to a search warrant.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Unless an exception is identified, searches require a warrant if a reasonable expectation of privacy exists.

2. Search warrants must be obtained for crime scenes except in emergency circumstances (suspect is possibly on premises), on public property, or consent is given. Searches require a warrant if a reasonable expectation of privacy exists.

3. Identify the proper authorities from which a search warrant may be obtained according to §19.2-52:

a. Judge

b. Magistrate

c. Other person with authority to issue criminal warrants in the jurisdiction of the place to be searched

4. Complete a sample affidavit according to §19.2-54 covering:

a. Description of place, thing, or person to be searched

b. Description of things or persons to be searched for

c. The offense causing the search

d. Thing(s) being searched for is/are evidence of the offense

e. Any other material facts that show probable cause to issue search warrant

5. State facts and circumstances that would lead a reasonable person to believe the seizable items are located in the area to be searched.

6. Return search warrant conforming to Code of Virginia §19.2-57 requirements:

a. Date of execution of warrant, signature and time noted on warrant

b. Under oath, inventory all property seized

c. Requirements for a return in accordance with §19.2-56 and §19.2-57.  The location for filing the return both where executed and issued, the timeline for filing and the computations for exceptions. 

d. The officer who seized the property or executed the search warrant, or his designee or agent, may file the warrant, inventory, and accompanying affidavit by delivering them in person, or by mailing them certified mail, return receipt requested, or delivering them by electronically transmitted facsimile.

7. Identify requirements for warrantless search of premises or property for suspect incident to hot pursuit conforming to constitutional requirements and Code of Virginia §19.2-59.

a. Define the hot pursuit exception to warrant requirements.

b. Identify the circumstances that justify hot pursuit.

c. Define the scope of a search incident to hot pursuit.

8. Identify the circumstances under which an out-of-state warrant may be served by electronic means.

9. Identify procedures for obtaining records from an electronic communication service or remote computing service (including foreign corporations) pursuant to a search warrant.

10. Case references:

a. U.S. v. Santana 427 US 38 (1976)

b. Warden v. Hayden 387 US 294 (1967)

c. Terry v. Ohio 392 US 1 (1968)

d. California v. Hodari D. 499 US 621 (1991)

e. Michigan v. Chesternut 486 US 567 (1988)

f. Carroll v. United States 267 US 132 (1925)

g. California v. Acevedo 111 S.Ct. 1982 (1991)

h. Maryland v. Buie 58 LW 4281 (1990)

i. New York v. Belton 453 US 454 (1981)

Case references related to consent searches:

a. Florida v. Royer 460 US 491 (1983)

b. Illinois v. Rodriquez 497 US 177 (1990)

c. Florida v. Jimeno 500 US 248 (1991)

Performance Outcome 2.32.

Use probable cause to search a vehicle.

Training Objectives Relating to 2.32.

1. Given a written exercise, identify factors to consider to legally search a vehicle.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.32.1. Identify legal criteria for a vehicle search.

2.32.1.1. Reasonable suspicion

2.32.1.2. Probable cause

2.32.1.3. Inventory

2.32.1.4. Carroll doctrine

2.32.1.5. Consent

2.32.2. Identify the parameters for the scope of a vehicle search.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Identify legal criteria for a vehicle search under probable cause:

a. Reasonable suspicion

b. Probable cause

c. Inventory

d. Carroll doctrine

e. Consent

2. Identify the parameters for the scope of a vehicle search.

Performance Outcome 2.33.

Pat down a suspect or search an arrested person.

Training Objectives Relating to 2.33

Given a written exercise,

1. Identify the parameters under which a pat down of a suspect may be conducted.

2. Identify the parameters under which the search of an arrested person may be conducted.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.33.1. The elements of a detention and arrest.

2.33.2. The scope of the search of the arrested person and the circumstances when the search may be extended beyond the person.

2.33.3. The relevant legal principles.

2.33.3.1. Terry v. Ohio

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. The elements of a detention and arrest.

2. The scope of the search of the arrested person and the circumstances when the search may be extended beyond the person.

3. The relevant legal principles:

a. Terry v. Ohio

b. Relevant Code section

Performance Outcome 2.34.                                                

Seize contraband, weapons, or stolen property from a suspect.

Training Objectives Relating to 2.34.

Given a written exercise:

1. Identify the legal requirements relating to seizure of contraband, weapons, or stolen property from suspects.

2. Identify items subject to asset forfeiture laws.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.34.1. Elements of the seizure of property.

2.34.2. Items subject to asset forfeiture laws.

2.34.3. Legal basis for seizing personal property related to illegal drug dealing or manufacture for forfeiture.

2.34.4. Identify the need to document items seized related to illegal drug dealing or manufacture as evidence for prosecution prior to forfeiture:

2.34.4.1. Identify the need to connect cash or other property seized with the illegal drug dealing or manufacture.

2.34.4.2. Identify the need to establish the connection as quickly as possible.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include:

1. Identifying the elements of the seizure of property: (Code of Virginia §19.2-53)

a. Probable cause to believe the property is fruits of a crime, contraband, or evidence

b. Instrumentality (weapons, other items)

2. Identify items subject to asset forfeiture laws.

a. Situations where assets may be seized:

1. Autos used to transport more than $500. of stolen goods §19.2-386.16

2. Autos used to transport illegal alcohol

3. Identify the legal basis for seizing personal property related to illegal drug dealing or manufacture for forfeiture. (Code of Virginia, §19.2-386.22)

a. The property was used in substantial connection with the manufacture, sale, or distribution of illegal drugs.

4. Identify what property may be forfeited if the legal basis can be proven.

a. Money, medical equipment, laboratory equipment, motor vehicles and all other property of any kind or character.

5. Identify the need to document items seized related to illegal drug dealing or manufacture as evidence for prosecution prior to forfeiture:

a. Identify the need to connect cash or other property seized with the illegal drug dealing or manufacture. 

b. Identify the need to establish the connection as quickly as possible.

Instructor Note: Advise trainees that they will need to identify the department procedure to contact Commonwealth’s Attorney so that necessary paperwork related to seizing assets may be initiated.(Department training)

Performance Outcome 2.35.

Identify, establish custody of, and record a chain of custody for evidence, seized or detained property, or recovered property.

Training Objectives Related to 2.35.

1. Given a written exercise, identify legal requirements to identify, establish custody of, and document a chain of custody for evidence, seized or detained property, or recovered property.

2. Given a written exercise, identify the legal requirements for proper disposition of unclaimed personal property in possession of law enforcement that is neither needed for evidence not is subject to forfeiture.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.35.1. Define evidence

2.35.2. Define the types of evidence

2.35.3. Define the chain of custody

2.35.4. Identify the minimum tests that an item of evidence must successfully pass before admission to any criminal court

2.35.5. Identify methods used for initially considering that an item may be evidence

2.35.6. Identify procedure to establish and track chain of custody of evidence:

2.35.6.1. Establish custody by marking with proper tags and securing or protecting

2.35.6.2. Document all persons handling the evidence or property

2.35.6.3. Document all persons handling the evidence or property during recovery, removal, transport, storage, and release

2.35.7. Identify reason to document return of property when lawfully released for later recovery

2.35.8. Identify the lawful disposition of ordinary unclaimed personal property.

2.35.9. Identify the lawful disposition of unclaimed firearms.

2.35.10. Identify the lawful disposition of drugs and drug paraphernalia not needed as evidence.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Define evidence.

2. Define the types of evidence:

a. Documentary (written items)

b. Trace

c. Real

d. Circumstantial

e. Physical

f. Confessions

g. Photographic

3. Define the chain of custody.

4. Identify the minimum tests that an item of evidence must successfully pass before admission to any criminal court: (Rules of Evidence)

a. Legal relevance

b. Logical relevance

5. Methods used to initially identify evidence:

a. Personal observation

b. Discovery through a valid search warrant

6. Identify methods used for initially considering that an item may be evidence.

7. Identify procedure to establish and track chain of custody of evidence:

a. Establish custody by marking with proper tags and securing or protecting

b. Document all persons handling the evidence or property

c. Document all persons handling the evidence or property during recovery, removal, transport, storage, and release.

8. Identify reason to document return of property when lawfully released for later recovery

9. Distinguish between property in possession of law enforcement and property in possession of the court.

10. Identify methods to determine that an item is not needed in evidence and the role of the case officer or investigator in this process (§15.2-1719 (local officers), (§52-11.4 (State Police))

11. Identify the role of the Commonwealth’s Attorney in the destruction or disposal of unclaimed personal property.

12. Identify the role of the court in the following:

a. Disposition of unclaimed property

b. Disposition of unclaimed firearms (§19.2-386.29)(§15.2-1721 and §52-11.4 (State Police))

c. Disposition of drugs and drug paraphernalia not needed as evidence (§19.2-386.23)

13. Identify the role of the State Treasurer in the destruction or other disposition of personal property other than drugs or drug paraphernalia.

Performance Outcome 2.36.

Identify legal basis for use of force by a law enforcement officer.

Training Objective Related to 2.36.

1. Given a written exercise, identify elements of case law and statutory law pertaining to use of force by law enforcement officers in the performance of duty.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.36.1. Preservation of life:

2.36.1.1. Case law

2.36.1.2. Statutory law

2.36.2. Preservation of property

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

Case law and statutory law pertaining to use of force by law enforcement officers in the performance of duty.

1. Preservation of life:

a. Case law:

1. Graham v. Connor

2. Tennessee v. Garner

3. Objective reasonableness

4. Deliberate indifference (Canton v. Harris)

b. Statutory law

2. Preservation of property

Performance Outcome 2.37.

Identify the circumstances under which a suspect is fingerprinted.

Training Objectives Relating to 2.37.

Given a written exercise:

1. Identify the circumstances under which a suspect shall be fingerprinted.

2. Identify requirements related to fingerprinting juveniles.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.37.1. The circumstances under which a suspect should be fingerprinted:

2.37.1.1. Charged with a felony

2.37.1.2. Charged with a class I or class II misdemeanor

2.37.1.3. Convicted of the above

2.37.2. The statutory requirements related to fingerprinting juveniles:

2.37.2.1. Age

2.37.2.2. Type of crime

2.37.2.3. Charged with certain types of crimes

2.37.2.4. Maintain juvenile fingerprint records separately from adult records

2.37.2.5. Destruction of juvenile fingerprint records

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. The circumstances under which a suspect shall be fingerprinted: (§19.2-390)

a. Charged with a felony

b. Charged with a class I or class II misdemeanor - release on summons after arrest unless charged with 18.2-266 Driving Under the Influence

c. Convicted of a class I or class II misdemeanor (§19.2-74)

d. Effective January 1, 2006, a photograph of the arrestee must accompany fingerprints submitted to the Central Criminal Records Exchange.

2. The requirements related to fingerprinting juveniles: §16.1-299

a. Age

b. Type of crime

c. Charged with certain types of crimes

d. Maintain juvenile fingerprint records separately from adult records

e. Destruction of juvenile fingerprint records

Performance Outcome 2.38.

Take into custody a person who has been detained by a citizen.

Training Objectives Relating to 2.38.

Given a written exercise:

1. Identify the legal authority under which a citizen can detain another person.

2. Identify the legal authority for private security personnel to arrest.

3. Identify the legal authority for a bail bondsman or his agent to arrest.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.38.1. The legal authority under which a citizen can detain another person.

2.38.2. The legal authority for private security personnel to arrest.

2.38.3. The legal authority for a bail bondsman or his agent to arrest.

2.38.4. Identify the point at which the suspect must be advised of constitutional rights under these circumstances.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Identify the legal authority under which a citizen can detain another person.

2. Identify the legal authority for private security personnel to arrest.

3. Identify the legal authority for a bail bondsman or his agent to arrest.

4. Identify the point at which the suspect must be advised of constitutional rights under these circumstances.

Performance Outcome 2.39.

Arrest persons with a warrant.

Training Objectives Relating to 2.39.

1. Given a written exercise, identify constitutional and statutory requirements to arrest a person with a warrant.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.39.1. Define arrest.

2.39.2. Identify the mandatory contents of a valid warrant.

2.39.3. Identify the territorial limitations of an officer’s power to arrest.

2.39.4. Identify the consequences of an illegal arrest.

2.39.5. Identify the process of executing an arrest warrant.

2.39.6. Identify the limits of an arrest warrant in searching residence listed on the warrant and residences of third parties.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

Code of Virginia, §19.2-71 to §19.2-83.1

1. Define arrest.

2. Identify who may issue a warrant for the arrest of a person charged with a criminal offense.

3. Identify the mandatory contents of a valid warrant:

a. It shall be directed to an appropriate officer

b. It shall name the accused or set forth a description by which he/she can be identified

c. It shall describe the offense charged with reasonable certainty

d. It shall command that the accused be arrested and brought before a court of appropriate jurisdiction

e. It shall be signed by the issuing officer

4. Identify the territorial limitations of an officer’s power to arrest.

5. Identify the consequences of an illegal arrest.

6. Identify the process of executing an arrest warrant:

a. Arrest the accused

b. Inform the accused of the offense charged and that a warrant has been issued

c. Endorse and date the warrant

d. Deliver a copy of the warrant to the accused as soon as possible

7. Identify the limits of an arrest warrant in searching residence listed on the warrant and residences of third parties.

Performance Outcome 2.40.

Arrest persons without a warrant.

Training Objectives Relating to 2.40.

1. Given a written exercise, identify constitutional and statutory requirements to arrest a person without a warrant.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.40.1. Identify the requirement for warrantless felony arrest under §19.2-81.

2.40.2. Identify the general requirement for a warrantless misdemeanor arrest.

2.40.3. Given narrative examples of arrest situations, determine if the warrantless arrest is legal (include as one situation an officer observing a crime while off duty and in plain clothes).

2.40.4. Identify three situations whereby an officer may make a warrantless arrest according to the Code of Virginia.

2.40.5. Identify when a police officer may enter a private dwelling in order to make a warrantless arrest.

2.40.6. Identify the requirement of an officer to show his badge when not in uniform and attempting to make an arrest.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

Code of Virginia, §19.2-81 to 19.2-83.1

1. Identify the requirement for warrantless felony arrest under §19.2-81.

2. Identify the general requirement for a warrantless misdemeanor arrest.

3. Define probable cause for arrest.

4. Given narrative examples of arrest situations, determine if the warrantless arrest is legal (include as one situation an officer observing a crime while off duty and in plain clothes).

5. Identify the situations whereby an officer may make a warrantless arrest according to the Code of Virginia:

a. Crime committed in presence (§19.2-81)

b. At the scene of an accident

c. Upon information that the individual is wanted in another jurisdiction through electronic messages (fax, teletype and radio messages)

d. A shoplifting offense

e. Assault and battery

f. Escapee from a mental institution

g. A probation or parole violation, etc.

h. Concealed weapon in school

i. Vandalism to commercial property

j. Taking into custody a person detained by a citizen

k. Traffic misdemeanor arrest (§19.2-82)

l. Failure to surrender (§19.2-298)

6. Identify when a police officer may enter a private dwelling in order to make a warrantless arrest:

a. Exigent circumstances

b. Consent

c. Hot pursuit

7. Identify the Virginia State Code sections pertaining to warrantless arrests:

a. Escape, flight and pursuit, arrest anywhere in Commonwealth (§19.2-77)

b. Arrest by officers of other states in close pursuit (§19.2-79)

c. Arrest without warrant authorized in certain cases (§19.2-81)

d. Arrest of an illegal aliennwithout a warrant (§ 19.2-81.6)

e. Procedure for arrest without warrant (§19.2-82)

8. Identify the requirement for an officer to show his badge when not in uniform and attempting to make an arrest. (§19.2-78

Instructor Note: Advise trainees that they will need to identify department policy for self-identification as a law enforcement officer.

Performance Outcome 2.41.

Demonstrate knowledge of general liability attached to performance of law enforcement duties related to privacy and security of person(s) and information.

Training Objective Related to 2.41.

1. Given a written exam, identify general liability attached to performance of enforcement duties related to privacy and security of person(s) and information.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.41.1. General liability related to privacy and security of person(s).

2.41.2. General liability related to privacy and security of information.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. General liability attached to performance of law enforcement duties related to privacy and security of person(s) and information.

Performance Outcome 2.42.

Demonstrate knowledge of general liability attached to performance of law enforcement duties related to use of force (physical restraint, weapons, and emergency vehicle operation).

Training Objective Related to 2.42.

1. Given a written exam, identify general liability attached to performance of law enforcement duties related to use of force (physical restraint, weapons, and emergency vehicle operation).

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.42.1. General liability related to use of force regarding physical restraint.

2.42.2. General liability related to use of force regarding weapons.

2.42.3. General liability related to use of force regarding emergency vehicle operation.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. General liability attached to performance of law enforcement duties related to use of force (physical restraint, weapons, and emergency vehicle operation).

Performance Outcome 2.43.

Demonstrate knowledge of general liability attached to performance of law enforcement duties related to false arrest, false imprisonment, and use of warnings vs. arrest.

Training Objective Related to 2.43.

1. Given a written exam, identify general liability attached to performance of law enforcement duties related to false arrest/false imprisonment/use of warnings vs. arrest (discretionary arrest authority).

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.43.1. Definition of false arrest.

2.43.2. Definition of false imprisonment.

2.43.3. Definition of discretionary arrest.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Definition of false arrest

2. The duty to release person arrested in error as promptly as possible and place in a position as good as or better than prior to arrest

3. Definition of false imprisonment

4. Definition of discretionary arrest (using a warning instead of making an arrest) and the limitations inherent to this

5. Documentation of circumstances related to a false arrest

6. Documentation of circumstances related to discretionary arrest (using a warning instead of making an arrest)

Instructor Note: Advise trainees that they will need to identify their department policy related to the use of discretionary arrest (giving a warning instead of making an arrest) during field training.

Performance Outcome 2.44.

Demonstrate knowledge of general liability attached to performance of law enforcement duties related to treatment of suspects and arrestees.

Training Objective Related to 2.44.

1. Given a written exam, identify general liability attached to performance of law enforcement duties related to treatment of suspects and arrestees.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.44.1. Assessment for medical treatment.

2.44.2. Assessment for psychiatric treatment.

2.44.3. Assessment of treatment after chemical or pepper spray.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Assessment for medical treatment:

a. Observe and identify any injuries:

1. Top down review

2. Front and back review

3. Photograph if possible

4. Transport to hospital

5.Identify source of injury (weapons, etc.)

6. Extent/seriousness of injury

7. Location on body

8. Identify all parties involved

9. If and how the arrestee was treated

10. Inquire about non-visible injuries (eyes, ears, elsewhere)

11. O.C. spray use

b. Document circumstances surrounding the injuries and indicate if a justifiable use of force was necessary.

2. Assessment for psychiatric treatment

3. Assessment of treatment after chemical or pepper spray

Performance Outcome 2.45.

Demonstrate knowledge of general liability attached to performance of law enforcement duties related to law enforcement vehicle operations.

Training Objective Related to 2.45.

1. Given a written exam, identify general liability attached to performance of law enforcement duties related to law enforcement vehicle operations.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.45.1. General liability related to law enforcement vehicle operations.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. General liability related to law enforcement vehicle operations.

Performance Outcome 2.46.

Demonstrate knowledge of general liability issues attached to performance of law enforcement duties.

Training Objective Related to 2.46.

1. Given a written exam, identify Virginia Sovereign Immunity and relevant federal civil rights law.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

2.46.1. Virginia Doctrine of Sovereign Immunity

2.46.2. Federal civil rights law as follows:

2.46.2.1. 18 U.S.C.  § 241

2.46.2.2. 18 U.S.C. § 242

2.46.2.3. 42 U.S.C. § 1983

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall cover the following:

1. Virginia Doctrine of Sovereign Immunity, relevant parts of § 8.01-195 through 8.01-195.9.

2. Federal civil rights law as follows:

a. 18 U.S.C. § 241

b. 18 U.S.C. § 242

c. 42 U.S.C. § 1983

3. Other areas as may be identified by the instructor as liable law enforcement actions.

bscharf

Communication

Communication

Performance Outcome 3.1.

Determine deception, deceit and manipulation through verbal and non-verbal behavioral activities.

Training Objectives Relating to 3.1.

1. Given a written, audio-visual, or practical exercise, identify unusual behavior characteristics to determine if a suspect is trying to deceive or manipulate the interviewer.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

3.1.1. Identification of unusual behavior characteristics of a suspect:

3.1.1.1. Questioning.

3.1.1.2. Body posture/gestures:

3.1.1.2.1. Speech behavior

3.1.1.2.2. Eye position

3.1.1.2.3. Lip behavior

3.1.1.2.4. Hand movements.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Identification of typical behavior characteristics:

a. Speech

b. Body posture

c. Questioning

d. Eye movements

e. Lip behavior

f. Hand positions

2. Identify unusual behavior characteristics to determine if a suspect is trying to deceive or manipulate the interviewer:

a. Speech

1. Slurred words

2. Skipping around sentences abruptly

3. Restarting sentences in the middle

4. Leaving off ends of sentences

b. Body posture

1. Slouches

2. Sits stiff and rigid

3. Faces to the side

4. Shies away from interviewer

5. Moves frequently and rapidly

6. Arms close to side and crossed

7. Head slumped

8. Legs stretched out in front of one another

9. Rub back of neck (stress)

c. Questioning

1. Hesitates before answering

2. Changes or hedges his/her answers

3. Asks for clarification on question

4. Religious references

d. Eye position

1. Stares at interviewer

2. Excessive eye shifting

3. Prolonged eye contact

4. Abnormal eye contact

5. Be aware of cultural differences regarding eye contact

e. Lip behavior

           1. Bites lips

           2. Squeezes lips together

           3. Continues to lick lips to wet them

4. Saliva comes from corner of lips

f. Hand movements

1. Clutching hands

2. Palms upward

3. Rubbing nose.

Performance Outcome 3.2.

Conduct a conference with parent(s) and juvenile(s) to obtain or provide information.

Training Objectives Relating to 3.2.

1. Given a written exercise, identify factors to consider when notifying parent/guardian of a juvenile that is either a suspect, victim, or witness of a crime.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

3.2.1. Identification of factors relating to communication skills that promote non-aggressive interaction:

3.2.1.1. Timely notification

3.2.1.2. Awareness that parents may be defensive, upset, or accusatory depending on the situation

3.2.1.3. Presentation of facts and consequences in a non-judgmental manner if the juvenile is a suspect

3,2.1.4. Using appropriate degree of sensitivity for type of crime while obtaining information

3.2.1.5. Provision of information to parents on juvenile justice system procedures.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Obtain information relating to misdemeanors or felonies (juvenile may be victim or suspect):

a. Who

b. What

c. Where

d. When

e. Why

f. How

2. Provide information relating to misdemeanors and felonies (juvenile may be victim or suspect):

a. Arrest

b. Detention

c. Hearing

d. Victim services

e. Answer general questions

3. Use communication skills that promote non-aggressive interaction:        

a. Provide timely notification

b. Be mindful that parents may be defensive, upset, or accusatory depending on the situation

c. Present facts and consequences in a non-judgmental manner if the juvenile is a suspect

d. Obtain information using appropriate degree of sensitivity for type of crime

e. Provide information to parents on juvenile justice system procedures.

Performance Outcome 3.3.

Stop or delay persons attempting to commit suicide.

Training Objectives Relating to 3.3.

1.  Given a written, audio-visual, or practical exercise, identify factors to consider when communicating with persons who threaten to commit suicide.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

3.3.1. Notify supervisor and request appropriate resources.

3.3.2. Maintain a safe position while communicating with person:

3.3.2.1.  Try to calm down the person

3.3.2.2. Try to identify problem

3.3.2.3. Try to delay person as much as possible

3.3.2.4. Suggest resources for the person to help solve the problems.

3.3.3. Document all proceedings.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Notify supervisor and request appropriate resources.

2. Maintain a safe position while communicating with person:

a. Try to calm down the person

b. Try to identify problems

c. Try to delay person as much as possible

d. Suggest resources for the person to help solve the problems.

3. Document all proceedings.

Performance Outcome 3.4.

Prepare for court testimony and testify in traffic court, in a legal and an administrative proceeding; before grand juries; in criminal trials; in evidence suppression hearings; in implied consent hearings; at probable cause hearings.

Training Objectives Relating to 3.4.

1. Given a written exercise, identify basic steps an officer should take to prepare for court testimony.

2. Given a practical exercise:

a. Prepare for and demonstrate courtroom testimony

b. Present probable cause to obtain a warrant of arrest.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

3.4.1. Preparation for court testimony in general:

3.4.1.1. Review field notes

3.4.1.2. Consult Commonwealth Attorney

3.4.1.3.  Review physical evidence and lab results

3.4.1.4. Ensure professional appearance

3.4.1.5. Formulate and articulate the facts of a traffic court case.

3.4.2. Preparation for testimony at a probable cause hearing:

3.4.2.1. Officer appears before a judge, magistrate or clerk of the court

3.4.2.2. Officer identifies suspect

3.4.2.3. Officer describes facts and circumstances that lead officer to believe that a crime has been committed and the person named is the perpetrator and provides this information on an accurately completed affidavit

3.4.2.4. Officer swears or affirms to the accuracy of the statement before the judge, magistrate, or clerk of the court.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

Related to general court testimony:

1. Knowledge of law relating to testimony, probable cause, arrest, and implied consent §18.2-268.2.

2. Knowledge of Virginia Code. §18.2-268.2 (Implied consent statute moved to #1)

3. Knowledge of facts of the case (confer with prosecutor as needed).

4. Review written notes and reports:

a. Officer may not read notes into court testimony, but only refer to them

b. Time between an incident/offense and court reduces the accuracy of memory

c. Accurate presentation of evidence in court is critical for convictions.

5. Review physical evidence and lab results.

6. Prepare mentally (present facts not make judgments).

7. Prepare to use calm and professional demeanor.

8. Prepare to use good English skills.

9. Be aware of body language.

10. Use clear and calm voice tone in speech.

11. Be truthful, accurate, and objective in testimony.

Related to probable cause hearings:

1. Knowledge of law relating to probable cause:

a. Definition

b. Who can issue a warrant:

1. Magistrate

2. Judge

3. Clerk of the court

c. Elements of probable cause:

1. Physical evidence

2. Witness testimony

3. Close proximity

4. Possession of a stolen item

5. Time between event and apprehension or recovery of property

6. Admission/confession/incriminating statements

2. Knowledge of Virginia Code §19.2-72.

3. Knowledge of facts of the case:

a. Date and time of the incident

b. Facts supporting probable cause that an offense was committed.

4. Written notes (reference only)

5. Prepare mentally (testify to the probable cause, do not demand a warrant).

6. Prepare to use calm and professional demeanor.

7. Prepare to use good English skills.

8. Be aware of body language.

9. Use clear and calm voice tone in speech.

10. Be truthful, accurate and objective in testimony.

11. Provide accurate and complete affidavit to conclude testimony.

Performance Outcome 3.5.

Obtain information about a complaint or service request from members of the public by telephone.

Training Objectives Relating to 3.5.

1. Given a practical exercise, demonstrate the steps to interview members of the public by telephone to obtain information about complaints or request for service.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

3.5.1. Answer call promptly with courteous and professional demeanor.

3.5.2. Evaluate nature of call and collect information.

3.5.3. Respond in a timely manner with appropriate action.

3.5.4. Close the conversation.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Answer call promptly with courteous and professional demeanor.

2. Evaluate nature of call and collect information:

a. Emergency

b. Concerned citizen information

c. Past disturbance

d. Procedure for complaints against law enforcement personnel.

3. Basic information to collect:

a. Who

b. What

c. Where

d. When

e. Why (if known)

f. How.

4. Respond in a timely manner with appropriate action:

a. Route call to other service provider if necessary:

1. Identify services that provide citizen assistance

2. Identify the best way for the citizen to access the services.

b. Dispatch officer or other emergency service.

c. Collect additional information for report, if possible.

5. Close the conversation:

a. Courteously terminate the call

b. Clearly state what action will be taken

c. Make certain action stated is completed.

Instructor Note: Advise trainees that they will need to identify local services and department procedures for advising citizens about complaints or service requests as part of their department training.

Performance Outcome 3.6.

Describe persons to other officers.

Training Objective Relating to 3.6.

1. Given a practical exercise, describe persons to other officers.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

3.6.1. Physical characteristics from the top down.

3.6.2. Clothing.

3.6.3. Mode of travel (if known).

3.6.4. Reason for look out.

3.6.5. Officer safety considerations.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Physical characteristics from the top down:

a. Gender

b. Hair color/style

c. Skin color/tone

d. Facial hair

e. Eye color, glasses

f. Estimated height

g. Estimated weight

h. Estimated age

i. Jewelry/accessories observed

j. Weapon used

k. Tattoos, scars, marks

l. Race/ethnic background

m. Voice characteristics:

1. Accent

2. Level (deep, high, etc.)

3. Lisp, unusual word pronunciations

2. Clothing:

a. Color

b. Style

3. Mode of travel (if known).

4. Reason for look out.

5. Officer safety considerations.

Performance Outcome 3.7.

Request verification of an arrest warrant.

Training Objective Relating to 3.7.

1. Given a written exercise, identify factors to consider when verifying a warrant on file:

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

3.7.1. Check name, date of birth, social security number.

3.7.2. Check information on warrant.

3.7.3. Check description of suspect.

3.7.4. Check whether custodial arrest authorized or if a summons.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Check name, date of birth, social security number.

2. Check information on warrant.

3. Check description of suspect.

4. Check whether custodial arrest authorized or if a summons.

Performance Outcome 3.8.

Calm emotionally upset individuals, and communicate an emergency message.

Training Objectives Relating to 3.8.

1. Given a practical exercise, use techniques of positive verbal skills and body language to talk with people who are emotionally upset in a manner to calm them, or to communicate an emergency message.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

3.8.1. Voice:

3.8.1.1.  Volume

3.8.1.2. Tone

3.8.1.3. Control.

3.8.2. Body stances.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Facial expressions.

2. Body stances.

3. Eye contact.

4. Voice:

a. Volume

b. Tone

c. Control.

5. Language use:

a. Direct, commonly used terms

b. Avoid slang or jargon

c. State information factually.

d. Offer assistance:

1. Call someone to aid person

2. Take somewhere appropriate.

6. Cultural awareness.

7. Local customs.

* Examples of emergency messages that an officer may have to deliver: missing child, injured spouse, accidental death, murder.

Performance Outcome 3.9.

Calm a situation or convey a message.

Training Objectives Relating to 3.9.

1. Given a practical exercise, use communication skills projecting control and self assurance to calm a situation or convey a message.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

3.9.1. Evaluate the words and behavior of parties involved.

3.9.2. Safely approach the hostile parties.

3.9.3. Establish contact with the hostile parties.

3.9.4. Use appropriate voice inflection and projection.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Evaluate the words and behavior of parties involved.

2. Safely approach the hostile parties.

3. Establish contact with the hostile parties:

a. Ascertain the reason(s) for their hostility

b. Use calming techniques to reduce emotions and restore rational thought

1. Appropriate posture and gestures:

a. Remain calm and encourage them to be calm

b. Remember officer safety and watch carefully

2. Appropriate voice inflection and projection:

a. As authoritative, directive, and forceful as needed

b. Polite and patient

c. Maintain voice control.

3. Appropriate eye contact.

4. Proper grammar.

5. Awareness of audience (age, education level, cultural diversity, etc.).

6. Knowledge of subject matter:

a. Help them go from problem to solution orientation.

b. Help them understand options and consequences.

c. Communicate the officer’s position and responsibilities in the situation.

d. Relate any applicable laws and consequences of continued acts.

e. Explain the parties option: comply with the law and pursue legal actions.

Performance Outcome 3.10.

Verbally communicate with people with awareness of different levels of understanding.

Training Objectives Relating to 3.10.

1. Given a practical exercise, verbally communicate with people with awareness of different levels of understanding.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

3.10.1. Identify audiences that may need the officer to adjust manner of communication.

3.10.2. Identify adjustments that may be needed when communicating with various audiences:

3.10.2.1. Culturally diverse people

3.10.2.2. Person’s suffering from dementia including Alzheimer’s Disease.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Identify reasons to consistently use professional language.

2. Identify audiences that may need the officer to adjust manner of communication:

a. Juveniles of various ages:

1. Reasons that law enforcement officers are role models.

2. Ways to make children feel important

a. Pay attention when they speak

b. Physically move down to eye contact with juvenile if possible

c. Give praise for asking questions

d. Compliment the good things you know about the children

e. Treat older juveniles in a more adult manner.

3. Ways to respond to questions with age appropriate answers:

a. Be honest but use language the juvenile is most likely to comprehend

b. Emphasize the positive in whatever the juvenile is discussing, if possible.

b. Older people.

c. Culturally diverse people:

1. Determine language person speaks, if not English (if possible)

2. Choose a quiet environment or setting to speak, if possible

3. Use a variety of terms to determine what the recipient may understand, then choose the terms most easily understood

4. Choose a rate of speech helpful to the recipient.

5. Use body language or gestures that enhance verbal communication.

6. Pronounce words clearly and accurately.

7. Encourage recipient to ask questions for clarification.

8. For less serious offenses, utilize appropriate gestures and tools (cuffs, etc.).

9. For serious offenses, obtain services of an interpreter after taking control of suspect.

d. Educated people.

e. Uneducated people.

f. Mentally disabled people.

g. Emotionally upset people

h. Physically disabled or elderly person with mobility problem:

1. Ask if you may be of assistance

2. Ask the person the best way to assist them (if appropriate)

3. Be aware of hearing impairments.

i. Homeless people

3. Identify adjustments that may be needed when communicating with various audiences:

a. Voice tone

b.Language use/simplification

c. Body stances/gestures

d. Cultural awareness:

1. Identify the variety of cultures living in jurisdiction

2. Identify particular considerations of these cultures with which to be familiar that may be helpful in conducting an interview of a victim or suspect

3. Identify resources to assist with language translation for the variety of cultures in the jurisdiction.

e. Facial expressions.

f. Eye contact.

g. Local customs.

4. Identify conversation that helps to promote the positive services of law enforcement.

5. Specific audiences that may require an officer to adjust manner of communication:

a. Persons with mental retardation

b. Persons with mental illness

c. Persons suffering from dementia including Alzheimer’s Disease (AD):

1. Identify physical, mental, behavioral symptoms and consequences of AD

2. Identify situations where a person with AD may be encountered

3. Identify specific intervention techniques for managing the person with AD

4. Identify potential resources that assist in responding to persons with AD or dementia: Alzheimer’s Association, Safe Return Program, Project Lifesaver.

6. Cultural awareness knowledge that may assist in adjusting communication with audiences:

a. Define culture and cultural groupings

b. Define ethnicity and ethnic groups

c. Identify the variety of cultures living in jurisdiction

d. Identify the variety of cultures whose members may visit or travel through the jurisdiction

e. Define ethnocentrism

f. Define stereotype

g. Identify the particular considerations of the cultures with which it will help a law enforcement officer to be familiar in order to conduct an interview of a victim or suspect

h. Identify resources to assist with language translation for the variety of cultures in the jurisdiction.

Performance Outcome 3.11.

Communicate the nature of the complaint to the offender.

Training Objectives Relating to 3.11.

1. Given a practical exercise, communicate the nature of complaint(s) to offender(s).

Criteria: The student shall be tested on the following:

3.11.1. Officer safety considerations.

3.11.2. Accurate information on nature of complaint(s).

3.11.3. Communication skills.

3.11.4. Patience with offender.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Officer safety considerations.

2. Professionalism.

3. Accurate information on nature of complaint(s).

4. Communication skills:

a. Voice control

b. Eye contact

c. Body stance

d. Language choice

5. Cultural awareness.

6. Patience with offender.

Instructor Note: Advise trainees that they will need to identify department policy regarding explanation of the nature of a complaint to offender(s) during department training.

Performance Outcome 3.12.

Communicate with a barricaded subject relating to the release of hostages and encourage surrender.

Training Objectives Relating to 3.12.

1. Identify the role of the first responding officer at the scene of a hostage/barricaded subject situation.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

3.12.1. Notify supervisor/request assistance.

3.12.2. Maintain position of cover.

3.12.3. Contain the suspect.

3.12.4. Coordinate with responding units to secure perimeter.

3.12.5. Consider evacuation of nearby buildings and surrounding area.

3.12.6. Attempt to establish:

3.12.6.1. Barricaded subject needs

3.12.6.2. Barricaded subject wants.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Notify supervisor/request assistance.

2. Maintain position of cover.

3. Contain the suspect.

4. Coordinate with responding units to secure perimeter.

5. Consider evacuation of nearby buildings and surrounding area.

6. Attempt to establish:

a. Barricaded subject needs

b. Barricaded subject wants.

7. Method for surrender:

a. Armed individual

b. Unarmed with explosives close

c. Possible suicidal individual.

Performance Outcome 3.13.

Demonstrate conflict resolution skills to maintain calm and prevent a situation from becoming worse.

Training Objectives Relating to 3.13.

1. Given a written exercise, define negotiation, mediation and arbitration and identify the steps of each conflict management technique.

2. Given a practical exercise, negotiate, mediate or arbitrate a conflict or crisis situation.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

3.13.1. Definition of negotiation, mediation and arbitration.

3.13.2. The steps involved in each type of the above conflict management techniques.

3.13.3. Evaluation of the conflict or crisis scene.

3.13.4. Maintaining officer safety precautions.

3.13.5. Negotiating, mediating or arbitrating the conflict or crisis situation.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Definition of negotiation, mediation, and arbitration.

2. The steps involved in each type of the above conflict management techniques.

3. Evaluation of the conflict or crisis scene.

4. Maintaining officer safety precautions.

5. Negotiating, mediating, or arbitrating the conflict or crisis situation:

a. Identify that no physical violence has taken place. If physical violence has taken place, follow procedures for the type of crime committed

b. Maintain all officer safety precautions. Back up arriving on scene must not disrupt efforts of first officer, but should take direction and support the first officer. Primary goal is to keep the peace and not let parties become physically violent

c. Diffuse the situation by separating the parties and explaining that you need to know the facts relating to the dispute. Each person will have a chance to speak, but you will set the rules for talking

d. Listen carefully to the explanation by each party separately to identify what their common interest is. Identify some alternatives to which both might agree. Officers should confer before reuniting the parties

e. Bring the parties back together to discuss alternatives that may resolve the dispute

f. Recognize when conflict management techniques will not produce the desired result and take any law enforcement action that is appropriate

g. If conflict management techniques are producing the desired result, refer them to additional services that may be helpful for the type of dispute they had, i.e., family mediation/counseling, landlord/tenant mediation, dispute resolution services, etc.

Performance Outcome 3.14.

Interview a child victim of crime.

Training Objective Relating to 3.14.

1. Given a written or practical exercise (practical preferred method for testing), identify factors to consider when interviewing a child victim of a crime.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

3.14.1. Identify language ability level of victim.

3.14.2. Identify emotional and physical capability of victim to be interviewed.

3.14.3. Communicate in a compassionate and non-judgmental manner.

3.14.4. Ensure victim is comfortable and understands the purpose of the interview (officer needs to learn what happened to hurt the victim).

3.14.5. Adjust language as needed to help victim understand questions.

3.14.6. Identify special circumstances and assistance needed to interview a mentally challenged victim.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Identify language ability level of victim.

2. Identify emotional capability of victim to be interviewed.

3. Communicate in a compassionate and non- judgmental manner.

4. Ensure victim is comfortable and understands the purpose of the interview (officer needs to learn what happened to hurt the victim).

5. Adjust language as needed to help victim understand questions.

6. Identify special circumstances and assistance needed to interview a mentally challenged victim.

Performance Outcome 3.15.

Interview an elderly victim of crime.

Training Objective Relating to 3.15.

1. Given a practical exercise, identify factors to consider when interviewing an elderly victim of a crime.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

3.15.1. Identify language ability level of victim.

3.15.2. Identify emotional and physical capability of victim to be interviewed.

3.15.3. Communicate in a compassionate and non-judgmental manner.

3.15.4. Ensure victim is comfortable and understands the purpose of the interview (officer needs to learn what happened to hurt the victim).

3.15.5. Adjust language as needed to help victim understand questions.

3.15.6. Identify special circumstances and assistance needed to interview a mentally challenged victim.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Identify language ability level of victim.

2. Identify emotional capability of victim to be interviewed.

3. Communicate in a compassionate and non-judgmental manner.

4. Ensure victim is comfortable and understands the purpose of the interview (officer needs to learn what happened to hurt the victim).

5. Adjust language as needed to help victim understand questions.

6. Identify special circumstances and assistance needed to interview a mentally challenged victim.

Performance Outcome 3.16.

Talk with family of adult defendants to advise, inform, and notify.

Training Objective Relating to 3.16.

1. Given a written exercise, identify the information that an officer may provide to the family of an arrested person.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

3.16.1. Type of charge.

3.16.2. Consequences of actions (where held).

3.16.3. Court procedures.

3.16.4. Location of magistrate.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Type of charge.

2. Consequences of actions (where held).

3. Court procedures.

4. Location of magistrate.

Instructor Note: Advise trainees that they will need to identify department policy regarding information that may be given to the family of adult defendants as part of their department training.

Performance Outcome 3.17.

Prepare incident/offense reports and related paperwork in order to facilitate a misdemeanor or felony prosecution.

Training Objectives Relating to 3.17.

1. Given a practical exercise, prepare an incident/offense report and related paperwork using descriptive sentences in a narrative style.

2. Identify other documentation that should be submitted with the offense report to facilitate prosecution.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

3.17.1. Incident/offense report information:

3.17.1.1. Offense

3.17.1.2. Date/location

3.17.1.3. Time

3.17.1.4. Description of details of offense

3.17.1.5. Victim(s) description(s)

3.17.1.6. Suspect(s) description(s)

3.17.1.7. Complainant/Reporting Party information

3.17.1.8. Witness(es) information.

3.17.2. Other information to be submitted with incident/offense report:

3.17.2.1. Suspect(s), victim(s), witness(es) statements, if any

3.17.2.2. Lab reports and lab analysis should be attached

3.17.2.3. Investigative or follow-up reports to be attached

3.17.2.4. All document should be typewritten or printed.

3.17.3. Prepare a complete case file that would be submitted to a Commonwealth’s attorney.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Offense.

2. Date/location.

3. Time.

4. Description of details of incident/offense.

5. Victim(s) description(s):

a. Full name(s)

b. Address/phone number (include cellular, pager, fax, if available)

c. Date of birth

d. Social security number

e. Employer's name, address, phone number (include cellular, pager, fax, if available).

6. Suspect’s description(s):

a. Full name(s)

b. Address/phone number

c. Date of birth

d. Social security number

e. Any prior criminal history

f. Injuries defendant may have received during arrest (if any)

g. Documentation of circumstances surrounding the injuries and indication if a justifiable use of force was necessary.

7. Complainant/Reporting Party Information:

a. Full name

b. Address/phone number.

8. Witness(es) Information:

a. Full name(s)

b. Addresses/phone numbers

c. Statements.

9. Narrative style:

a. Proper use of grammar

b. Accurate statements of facts

c. Complete and detailed representation of facts

d. Impartial, clear, and concise language

e. Chronological order

f. Past tense

g. Active voice.

10. Other information to be submitted to a Commonwealth’s Attorney with the incident/offense report as part of a case file:

a. Suspect(s), victim(s), witness(es) statements, if any

b. Lab reports and lab analysis should be attached

c. Investigative or follow-up reports to be attached

d. All document should be typewritten or printed.

Performance Outcome 3.18.

Write a field intelligence/interview report.

Training Objectives Relating to 3.18.

1. Given a practical exercise depicting an investigative stop, write a field intelligence/interview report.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

3.18.1. Subject information and description.

3.18.2. Location/date/time of stop.

3.18.3. Circumstances surrounding the stop.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Basic data:

a. Name(s)

b. Address(s)

c. Phone number(s)

d. Date/time of day.

2. Proper use of grammar.

3. Accurate statements of facts.

4. Complete and detailed representation of facts.

5. Impartial, clear, and concise language.

Performance Outcome 3.19.

Write concise word for word statements from suspects, victims and witnesses for admission as evidence.

Training Objectives Related to 3.19.

1. Given a practical exercise, write concise word for word statements from suspects, victims and witnesses for admission as evidence.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

3.19.1. The statement is made under conditions that provide for no duress, threats, or promises.

3.19.2. The statement is written concisely and represents what is said.

3.19.3. The person making the statement is allowed to read and make any corrections.

3.19.4. The person signs the statement voluntarily.

3.19.5. The statement is witnessed.

3.19.6. The date and time of the statement are included.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. The statement is made under conditions that provide for no duress, threats, or promises.

2. The statement is written concisely and represents what is said.

3. The person making the statement is allowed to read and make any corrections.

4. The person signs the statement voluntarily.

5. The statement is witnessed.

6. The date and time of the statement are included.

bscharf

Patrol

Patrol

Performance Outcome 4.1.

Conduct photographic line-up to identify arrestee/suspects.

Training Objective Related to 4.1.

1. Given a written exercise, list factors to consider when doing a photographic lineup.

Criteria: The trainee will be tested on the following:

4.1.1. Same sex

4.1.2. Similar size, build, color, race, ethnic background

4.1.3. Similar background in photo

4.1.4. Using the number of photos specified in the reference “Eyewitness Evidence, a Guide for Law Enforcement” published by the U.S. Department of Justice, present each photo individually in a sequential manner. Use either black/white photos for all or color photos for all.

4.1.5. Descriptors that victim or witnesses provide (instructor to provide for class)

4.1.6. Do not use photos that reflect bias toward one person, i.e. mug shots for some and not all.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Photographic line-up factors:

a. Same sex

b. Similar size, build, color, race, ethnic background

c. Similar background in photo

d. Using the number of photos specified in the reference “Eyewitness Evidence, a Guide for Law Enforcement” published by the U.S. Department of Justice, present each photo individually in a sequential manner. Use either black/white photos for all or color photos for all.

e. Descriptors that victim or witnesses provide (instructor to provide for class)

f. Do not use photos that reflect bias toward one person, i.e. mug shots for some and not all.

2. Approaches for using photo identification

a. Preparing a group of photographs for the witness to review

b. Presenting each photograph individually to the witness

Instructor Note: Advise trainees that they will be expected to demonstrate a photographic line-up using the above factors correctly during department training. *Reference “Eyewitness Evidence, A Guide for Law Enforcement” published by the U.S. Dept. of Justice.

Performance Outcome 4.2.

Assess need to evacuate buildings and surrounding areas endangered by threat of explosion or by toxic gases, liquids or other hazardous spilled materials.

Training Objective Related to 4.2.

1. Given a written exercise, identify the responsibilities of the first officer on the scene of a hazardous spilled materials incident.

2. Given a written exercise, identify use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) as a hazmat incident.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.2.1. Evaluate the situation.

4.2.2. Identify appropriate agencies to notify and request assistance.

4.2.3. Attempt to establish contact with responsible party for property involved.

4.2.4. Secure the perimeter.

4.2.5. If and when determined such assistance is needed, proceed to evacuate the designated building and areas.

4.2.6. Identify indicators and effects of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) on individuals and property.

4.2.7. Identify signs and symptoms common to initial victims of a WMD hazmat incident.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Evaluate the situation.

2. Identify appropriate agencies to notify and request assistance.

3. Attempt to establish contact with responsible party for property involved.

4. Secure the perimeter.

5. If and when determined such assistance is needed, proceed to evacuate the designated building and areas.

6. Identify indicators and effects of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) on individuals and property.

7. Identify signs and symptoms common to initial victims of a WMD hazmat incident.

Performance Outcome 4.3.

Locate vehicle identification number.

Training Objective Related to 4.3.

1. Given a written, audio-visual, or practical exercise, inspect a vehicle to locate vehicle identification number.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.3.1. Locate a vehicle identification number (VIN).

4.3.2. Identify locations of hidden VIN numbers.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Typical vehicle identification number locations for several models.

2. Locations for hidden VIN numbers.

Instructor Note: Reference the National Auto Theft Book to explain meanings of numbers and letters of vehicle identification numbers.

Performance Outcome 4.4.

Inspect motor vehicle to identify safety violations.

Training Objective Related to 4.4.

1. Given a written exam, inspect motor vehicle to identify safety violations.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.4.1. Identify procedure for visually inspecting a non-commercial vehicle for safety and equipment violations.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Identify procedure for visually inspecting a non-commercial vehicle for safety and equipment violations.

2. Review current state inspection receipt.

3. Identify the exception: Commercial vehicles requiring a commercial driver’s license.

Performance Outcome 4.5.

Patrol areas restricted due to man-made or natural disasters.

Training Objective Related to 4.5.

1. Given a written exercise, identify the factors to consider related to controlling movement of individuals and vehicles in a restricted area.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.5.1. Identify boundaries in disturbance area.

4.5.2. Identify restrictions on an individual passing through area.

4.5.3. Identify restrictions on vehicles passing through area.

4.5.4. Identify curfew limitations.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Identify boundaries in disturbance area.

2. Identify restrictions on an individual passing through area.

3. Identify restrictions on vehicles passing through area.

4. Identify curfew limitations.

Instructor Note: Advise trainees of §15.2-1714 related to members of the press being permitted to cross police lines unless this may interfere with evidence, police, firefighters, or emergency personnel in the performance of their duties. However, a record of entry and exit of such persons MUST be made as part of normal procedure.

Performance Outcome 4.6.

Establish a security perimeter.

Training Objective Related to 4.6.

1. Given a written or practical exercise, identify the procedure to follow to establish a security perimeter.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.6.1. Assign an officer to possible points of entry/exit to restrict unauthorized entry or exit.

4.6.2. Assign an officer to record everyone who enters or exits.

4.6.3. Rope off crime scene areas.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Assign an officer to possible points of entry/exit to restrict unauthorized entry or exit.

2. Assign an officer to record everyone who enters or exits.

3. Rope off crime scene areas.

Instructor Note: Advise trainees of §15.2-1714 related to members of the press being permitted to cross police lines unless this may interfere with evidence, police, firefighters, or emergency personnel in the performance of their duties. However, a record of entry and exit of such persons MUST be made as part of normal procedure.

Performance Outcome 4.7.

Develop and maintain field contacts and intelligence sources.

Training Objective Related to 4.7.

1. Given a written exam, identify methods to develop and maintain field contacts and intelligence sources.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.7.1. Positive/negative elements of field contacts/intelligence sources.      

4.7.2. Methods to make and/or maintain contact.                                            

4.7.3. Factors that affect the usefulness of information.                                     

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Positive/negative elements of field contacts/intelligence sources:

a. Drug users/Dealers

b. Thieves

c. Street people

d. Neighbors/residents/shop owners

e. Service personnel

f. Fellow officers

g. Gangs (rivals)

h. Others as may be identified

2. Methods to make and/or maintain contact:

a. Safety of officer and contact:

1. Phone contacts (limit use of names)

2. Personal contacts

b. Third party contacts

3. Factors that affect the usefulness of information:

a. Timeliness

b. Validity of information

Performance Outcome 4.8.

Investigate a suspicious vehicle.

Training Objective Related to 4.8.

1. Given a written, audio-visual, or practical exercise, identify factors to consider to investigate suspicious vehicles.  

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.8.1. Identification of a suspicious vehicle.

4.8.2. Approach to a suspicious vehicle.    

4.8.3. Location of a suspicious vehicle.       

4.8.4. Safety considerations.

4.8.5. Time of day.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Identification of a suspicious vehicle.

2. Approach to a suspicious vehicle.

3. Location of a suspicious vehicle.

4. Safety considerations.

5. Time of day.

Performance Outcome 4.9.

Request use of a police dog appropriately.

Training Objective Related to 4.9.

1. Given a written exercise, identify factors to consider related to use of a K-9.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.9.1. Appropriate uses of a K-9:

4.9.1.1. Searches for people, evidence, and contraband.

4.9.1.2. Crowd control.

4.9.1.3. Apprehension of suspect.

4.9.2. Factors which affect ability of a K-9 to track:

4.9.2.1. Scent obtainable.

4.9.2.2. Area not trampled by numerous people.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Appropriate uses of a K-9:

a. Searches for people, evidence, and contraband.

b. Crowd control.

c. Apprehension of suspect.

2. Factors which affect ability of a K-9 to track:

a. Scent obtainable.

b. Area not trampled by numerous people.

3. The legal issues involved with using a police dog.

4. Multiple types of tracking used by K-9s:

a. Ground scent

b. Air scent

c. Note differences in use of bloodhounds and patrol canines and capabilities of both.

5. Officer safety concerns:

a. Role of K-9 handler in controlling canine.

b. K-9 confusion possibilities when several people run at the same time.

Instructor Note: Advise trainees that they will be expected to identify their department policy related to use of a K-9 during their department training.

Performance Outcome 4.10.

Restore peace at a loud party.

Training Objective Related to 4.10.

1. Given a written or practical exercise, identify appropriate response to reduce noise or restore peace at loud parties.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.10.1. Identify Code of Virginia statutes related to noise violations or disturbing the peace.

4.10.2. Identify the person who is responsible for the premises on which the noise violation occurs.

4.10.3. Identify communication skills useful to enforcing noise ordinances.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Identify Code of Virginia statutes related to noise violations or disturbing the peace (§15.2-1220; §15.2-1700).

2. Identify the person who is responsible for the premises on which the noise violation occurs.

3. Identify communication skills useful to enforcing noise ordinances.

Instructor Note: Advise trainees that they will need to identify local ordinances related to noise violations during department training.

Performance Outcome 4.11.

Provide building security.

Training Objective Related to 4.11.

1. Given a written or practical exercise, identify factors to consider when performing non-business hours building security checks.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.11.1. Observe area before approach.

4.11.2. Foot vs. mobile approach.

4.11.3. Look for irregularities.

4.11.4. Check vehicles in lots.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Observe area before approach.

2. Foot vs. mobile approach.

3. Make a physical check of the building, looking and testing for irregularities (unlocked or open doors & windows, broken glass, nonsecure deadbolts, items in disarray, suspicious persons, etc.)

4. Check vehicles in lots.

5. Check rear view mirror when leaving.

Instructor Note: Advise trainees that they will need to identify department policy related to false alarms as part of their department training.

Performance Outcome 4.12.

Observe individual to recognize signs of abnormal behavior. Assess need for mental or medical evaluation, or help and resources from another source. Take into involuntary custody a person displaying behavior that gives the officer probable cause to believe that mental illness exists using the appropriate Code of Virginia requirements.

Training Objective Related to 4.12.

Given a written and practical exercise:

1. Identify behaviors that may indicate possible mental illness or other maladaptive and/or dangerous speech or actions that require law enforcement intervention.

2. Identify behaviors that may indicate possible dementia or Alzheimer’s Disease that may require law enforcement intervention.

3. Take into involuntary custody a person displaying behavior that gives the officer probable cause to believe that mental illness exists using the appropriate Code of Virginia requirements.

4. Given a written exercise, identify relevant law enforcement issues relating to homeless            

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.12.1. Signs of abnormal behavior or dementia/Alzheimer’s disease of a person or arrestee.

4.12.1.1. Abnormal behaviors and physical signs that may be observed by officers.

4.12.1.2. Possible danger to officer from person or arrestee behaving abnormall.y

4.12.1.3. Appropriate action to be taken related to abnormal behavior observed.

4.12.1.4. Communication to the booking officer and/or jailor of any statements or behavioral observations that indicate danger to the arrestee or others.

4.12.2. Identify legal requirements to take into involuntary custody a person displaying behavior that gives the officer probable cause to believe that mental illness exists using the appropriate Code of Virginia requirements:

4.12.2.1. Identify and be able to articulate conditions for an emergency custody order.

4.12.2.2. Identify and be able to articulate conditions for a temporary detention order.

4.12.2.3. Identify procedures for obtaining an emergency custody order or temporary detention order.

4.12.2.4. Identify procedure for securing, searching, and transporting a person who meets the criteria of an emergency custody order or temporary detention order including a change of voluntary consent for transport to placement under emergency custody while in transport.

4.12.2.5. Identify conditions that provide a law enforcement officer the ability to obtain health care records under § 32.1-127/1:03.D.2.

4.12.2.6. Identify conditions for transfer of custody of person under emergency custody order under §37.2-808 E.

4.12.3. Identify relevant law enforcement issues relating to homeless persons.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Examples of abnormal behaviors or dementia/Alzheimer’s Disease of a person or arrestee:

a. Disorders commonly responsible for abnormal behavior.

b. Abnormal behaviors and physical signs that may be observed by officers.

c. Possible danger to officer from person or arrestee behaving abnormally.

d. Appropriate sources and types of information useful in assessing a person’s behavior.

e. Importance of seeking help for persons suffering from an emotional crisis.

f. Appropriate action to be taken related to abnormal behavior observed.

g. Communication to the booking officer and/or jailor of any statements or behavioral observations that indicate danger to the arrestee or others.

h. Monitor those in your custody who exhibit abnormal behavior to ensure their safety and the safety of others.

2. Identify legal requirements to take into involuntary custody a person displaying behavior that gives the officer probable cause to believe that mental illness exists using the appropriate Code of Virginia requirements:

a. Identify and be able to articulate conditions for an emergency custody order.

b. Identify and be able to articulate conditions for a temporary detention order.

c. Identify procedures for obtaining an emergency custody order or temporary detention order.

d. Identify procedure for securing, searching, and transporting a person who meets the criteria of an emergency custody order or temporary detention order including a change of voluntary consent for transport to placement under emergency while in transport (§  37.2-808(H)).

e. Identify conditions that provide a law enforcement officer the ability to obtain health care records under §32.1-127/1:03.D.2.

f. Identify conditions for transfer of custody of person under emergency custody order under §37.2-808 E.

3. Identify relevant law enforcement issues relating to homeless persons.

Instructor Note: Advise trainees that they will need to identify department policy related to taking into involuntary custody a person who displays abnormal behavior and to identify locations to deliver this person as part of department training.

Performance Outcome 4.13.

Respond to and conduct a preliminary, follow-up or continuing investigation (when assigned) of family disturbances, family offenses, or family abuse.

Training Objective Related to 4.13.

1. Given a written exercise, define the following:

a. Family disturbances

b. Family offenses

c. Family abuse

d. Family or household member

2.  Given a written exercise, define the meaning of the following legal papers:

a. Emergency Protective Order

b Preliminary Protective Order

c. Permanent Protective Order

3.  Given a written exercise, identify the correct procedures for service of the following legal papers:

a. Emergency Protective Order (including telephonic order)

b. Preliminary Protective Order

c. Permanent Protective Order

4. Given a practical exercise, respond to and conduct a preliminary, follow-up, or continuing investigation of family disturbances, family offenses, or family abuse.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.13.1. Definition of the following:

4.13.1.1. Family disturbances

4.13.1.2. Family offenses

4.13.1.3. Family abuse

4.13.1.4. Family or household member

4.13.2. Definition of the following legal papers:

4.13.2.1. Emergency Protective Order

4.13.2.2. Preliminary Protective Order

4.13.2.3. Permanent Protective Order

4.13.3. Identification of the correct procedures for service of the following:

4.13.3.1. Emergency Protective Order (including telephonic order)

4.13.3.2. Preliminary Protective Order

4.13.3.3. Permanent Protective Order

4.13.4.The appropriate law enforcement response to these calls:

4.13.4.1. Evaluate the scene.

4.13.4.2. Provide aid and assistance as may be needed, including officer’s responsibility for making arrangements for transporting victim.

4.13.4.3. Interview victim (determining willingness to cooperate with investigation if adult, however, other evidence may be used if victim is unwilling), witness(es) (if any) and suspect(s) (if and/or when identified).

4.13.4.4. Identify, record, collect and/or preserve physical evidence.

4.13.4.5. Determine the offense, the predominant physical aggressor, and appropriate charges.

4.13.4.6. Arrest the predominant physical aggressor.

4.13.4.7. Make referrals for help services, i.e., Child Protective Services, social services, rape counseling, domestic violence shelters, etc.

4.13.4.8. Get warrant for the arrest; petition for an emergency protective order for the victim; if issued serve the emergency protective order then take to the communications center and take appropriate steps to have entered into VCIN.

4.13.4.9. Record findings on standard report forms to assist investigation in determining what, if any, crime has occurred.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Definition of the following terms:

a. Family disturbances

b. Family offenses

c. Family abuse

d. Family or household member

2. The appropriate law enforcement response to these calls:

a. Evaluate the scene.

b. Provide aid and assistance as may be needed (include officer’s responsibility for making arrangements for transporting victim).

c. Interview victim (determine willingness to cooperate with investigation; if adult, however, other evidence may be used if victim is unwilling); witness(es) (if any); suspect(s) (if and/or when identified).

d. Identify, record, collect and/or preserve physical evidence.

e. Determine offense, predominant physical aggressor, & appropriate charges.

f. If probable cause exists, petition for an emergency protective order (by telephone if necessary).

g. Arrest the predominant physical aggressor and take before a magistrate:

1. Identify “Special Circumstances” for not making an arrest

h. Get warrant for the arrest; petition for an emergency protective order for the victim; if issued serve the emergency protective order then take to the communications center and take appropriate steps to have entered into VCIN.

i. Research all records for past reported case history (may ask for this en route)

j. Make referrals for help services, i.e., Child Protective Services, social services, rape counseling, domestic violence shelters, etc.

k. Subpoena medical records if needed.

L. Record findings on standard report forms to assist investigation in determining what, if any, crime has occurred.

3. Define the meaning of the following legal papers:

a. Emergency Protective Order

b. Preliminary Protective Order

c. Permanent Protective Order

4. Identify the correct procedures for service of the following legal papers:

a. Emergency Protective Order (including telephonic order)

b. Preliminary Protective Order

c. Permanent Protective Order

5. Identify circumstances to make a custodial arrest in lieu of a summons.

a. Court order exists

b. Continuing threat of violence

Instructor Note: Advise trainees that they will need to identify department policy related to family abuse issues as part of department training:

a. Special circumstances for not making an arrest

b. Officer’s responsibility for making arrangements for transporting victim

Performance Outcome 4.14.

Respond to and conduct a preliminary investigation of events related to destruction of property.

Training Objective Related to 4.14.

1. Given a written exercise, identify the duties of the first responding officer to investigate events related to destruction of property.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.14.1. Notify proper authorities.

4.14.2. Protect the crime scene according to requirements of the nature of the crime.

4.14.3. Locate witnesses.

4.14.4. Assist as needed on scene.

4.14.5. Complete necessary reports.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Define destruction of property as willful or malicious destruction or defacement of public or private property.

2. Notify proper authorities.

3. Protect the crime scene according to requirements of the nature of the crime.

4. Locate witnesses.

5. Assist as needed on scene.

6. Complete necessary reports.

Performance Outcome 4.15.

Conduct a preliminary investigation of controlled substances offenses, and follow-up investigation when assigned.

Training Objective Related to 4.15.

1. Given a written exercise, identify factors to consider related to investigation of controlled substances.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.15.1. Characteristics of commonly abused controlled and non-controlled substances:

4.15.1.1. Marijuana

4.15.1.2. Hallucinogens

4.15.1.3. Barbiturates/amphetamines

4.15.1.4. Opiates

4.15.1.5. Inhalants

4.15.1.6. Abused prescriptions

4.15.2. Common street packaging of controlled substances for illegal sale:

4.15.2.1. Marijuana

4.15.2.2. Hallucinogens

4.15.2.3. Barbiturates/amphetamines

4.15.2.4. Opiates

4.15.2.5. Inhalant

4.15.2.6. Abused prescriptions

4.15.3. Identification of various forms of drug paraphernalia.

4.15.4. Identification of the factors to consider in a controlled substances investigation, arrest, and prosecution.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Characteristics of commonly abused controlled and non-controlled substances:

a. Marijuana

b. Hallucinogens

c. Barbiturates/amphetamines

d. Opiates

e. Inhalants

f. Abused prescriptions

2. Common street packaging of controlled substances for illegal sale:

a. Marijuana -- 1/4 oz. or 1/2 oz., ounces to pounds usually plastic baggies; kilos can be plastic to paper, usually wrapped with duct tape.

b. Powder Cocaine -- grams, 8-balls, quarter oz., half oz., corners cut from baggies to whole baggies for larger amounts.

c. Heroin -- tin foil packages for small amounts; also small zip lock bags to whole baggies for larger amounts; Richmond glassine paper.

d. PCP (phencyclidine) -- tin foil for small amounts; vanilla extract bottles for liquid; large amounts -- baggies to mason jars.

e. Methamphetamine -- sold in similar containers as cocaine.

f. Crack Cocaine -- sold in similar containers as powder.

g. GHBs, Ecstasy -- usually sold in capsules.

h. Mushrooms -- baggies

i. LSD -- paper (usually blotter type).

j. Pills -- no set packaging.

k. Hash oil -- small jars (usually amber in color).

Note: Most street sales will use the small baggies -- usually corners cut from a sandwich baggie and a twisty to close it. There are other indicators: people hanging on corners, vehicles stopping for a short time, hand signals, etc. Usually an officer won’t see an exchange of the dope because the amounts are small and can be palmed. They will probably see money come back, but not always. Keep in mind that the training and experience of the officer is what the court looks at in its decisions. New officers should realize that basic training is an introduction to investigation of controlled substances and plan on additional training as they gain experience.

3. Identification of various forms of drug paraphernalia.

4. Identification of the factors to consider in a controlled substances investigation and prosecution:

a. Establishing probable cause for arrest.

b. Evidence handling package (see Division of Forensic Science (DFS) “Evidence Handling Guide”).

c. Evidence preservation.

d. Evidence submission (to forensic lab).

e. Suitability of field test use.

f. Filing of search warrant.

g. Suspect history/prior record.

h. Suspect/witness relationship.

i. Obtain lab analysis report information and file lab report with clerk of the court at least 7 days prior to trial.

j. Prepare for grand jury or court presentation.

k. Prepare for pre-trial conference (with commonwealth’s attorney).

l. Prepare seizure reports (money, vehicles, guns, etc.).

m. Dispose of drugs (court order).

n. Check with informants/concerned citizens.

o. Testimony regarding field tests related to controlled substances (§19.2-188.1).

5. Identify the hazards involved in dealing with a clandestine lab and describe the safety precautions which an officer should take under these circumstances.

Performance Outcome 4.16.

Respond to and conduct a preliminary investigation of events related to an animal complaint.

Training Objective Related to 4.16.

Given a written exercise:

1. Identify criminal violations related to animal behavior.

2. Identify criminal violations related to cruelty to animals.

3. Identify criminal violations related to animal fighting.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.16.1. Statute on complaints related to animal behavior.

4.16.2. Statute on complaints about cruelty to animals.

4.16.3. Steps for responding to complaints: (§3.2-6571):

4.16.3.1. If not an immediate threat to officer or public, notify animal control or proper authority.

4.16.3.2. If an immediate threat, the officer must control the situation taking precautions that no bystanders will be endangered.

4.16.3.3. Identify equipment or weapons needed to control the situation given the size, speed, strength, and aggression of animal(s) with knowledge that intermediate impact weapons (such as batons) are not recommended.

 4.16.3.3.1. If the animal is aggressive and the officer has time and the necessary resources or equipment the officer should attempt to put a physical barrier (i.e. trashcan or vehicle) between himself and the animal while redirecting the animals attention or subduing the animal using less lethal tactics (i.e. food, treats, chemical spray, conducted electronic weapon discharged sideways, discharge of a fire extinguisher or lit flare).

4.16.3.3.2. If the animal is charging or attacking, the officer is permitted to protect the public and defend himself through the use of force to include lethal force.

4.16.3.4. Identify methods for destruction of injured animals when no animal control officer is available.

4.16.4. Animal fighting:

4.16.4.1. Identify animal fighting activities and/or venues and work with animal control officers (where available) in responding to any related criminal activity. 

4.16.4.2. Identify possible criminal activity associated with animal fighting.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Complaints related to animal behavior (§3.2-6540).

2. Complaints about cruelty to animals (§18.2-403.1, §3.2-6570):

a. If not an immediate threat to officer or public, notify animal control or proper authority.

b. If an immediate threat, the officer must control the situation taking precautions that no bystanders will be endangered.

c. Identify equipment or weapons needed to control the situation given the  size, speed, strength, and aggression of animal(s) .

1. If the animal is aggressive and the officer has time and the necessary resources or equipment the officer should attempt to put a physical barrier (i.e. trashcan or vehicle) between himself and the animal while redirecting the animals attention or subduing the animal using less lethal tactics (i.e. food, treats, chemical spray, conducted electronic weapon discharged sideways, discharge of a fire extinguisher or lit flare).

2. If the animal is charging or attacking, the officer is permitted to protect the public and defend himself through the use of force to include lethal force .

3. Identify methods for destruction of injured animals when no animal control officer is available.

d. Identify methods for destruction of injured animals when no animal control officer is available.

3. Animal fighting (§ 3.2-6571)

a. Identify animal fighting activities and/or venues and work with animal control officers (where available) in responding to any related criminal activity.

b. Identify possible criminal activity associated with animal fighting:

1. Animal cruelty

2. Unlawful wagering

3. Controlled substances

4. Grand or petit larceny

5. Unlawful transportation of animals

6. Conspiracy to commit criminal acts

7. Others as instructor may identify

Instructor Note: Advise trainees that they will need to identify local ordinances and department policy related to animal complaints as part of their department training.

Performance Outcome 4.17.

Respond to and conduct preliminary investigation of events related to lost/missing/abducted person.

Training Objective Related to 4.17.

1. Given a written or practical exercise, identify the duties of the first officer to conduct a preliminary investigation of events related to lost, missing or abducted person.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.17.1. Complete identification of a person:

4.17.1.1. Name

4.17.1.2. Age/Date of Birth

4.17.1.3. Date, time last seen

4.17.1.4. Description/photo

4.17.1.5. Others with him/her, if any

4.17.1.6. First time or repeat

4.17.1.7. Known frequented locations

4.17.1.8. Repealed

4.17.1.9. Special or secret hide-a-way (even old ones)

4.17.1.10. Conversations about leaving residence

4.17.2. Special or suspicious circumstances under which to notify a supervisor immediately for determination of getting additional resources.

4.17.2.1. Missing child ( 52-32).

4.17.2.2. Elderly/persons with dementia specific illnesses or Alzheimer’s Disease.

4.17.2.3.  Missing adult with mental or physical disabilities or needing medication and critically missing adults 15.2-1718.2.

4.17.2.4. Danger due to weather.

4.17.2.5. (Repealed)

4.17.2.6. Review definition of abducted child ( 52-34 and the criteria for issuing an Amber Alert (52-34.3 and Senior Alert ( 52-34.6).

4.17.3. Search last known location first, surrounding area, nearby hazards, and vehicles.

4.17.4. Crime scene protection, if needed.

4.17.5. Collect, preserve, and maintain evidence.

4.17.6. Use a Virginia State Police Missing Children Information Clearinghouse Form (State Police Form SP-183) to report a missing child as defined by the Code of Virginia 52-32. Access the Virginia State Police Amber Alert Activation Request website  or submit an Amber Alert Form to initiate an Alert for an abducted child. Use an affidavit for missing person age  21or over (State Police Form SP-67) to report a missing adult. Use the Virginia State Police Senior Alert Program Form to request a local, regional, or statewide notification of a missing senior adult.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Statutory requirements for searching for missing persons.

2. Complete the identification of the person:

a. Name

b. Age/date of birth

c. Date, time last seen

d. Description/photo

e. Others with him/her, if any

f. First time or repeat

g. Known frequented locations

h. (Repealed)

i. Special or secret hide-a-way (even old ones)

j. Conversations about leaving residence

3. Special or suspicious circumstances under which to notify a supervisor immediately:

a. Missing child (§ 52-32) 

b. Elderly /persons with dementia specific illnesses or Alzheimer’s Disease

c. Missing adult with mental or physical disabilities or needing medication and critically missing adults (§ 15.2-1718.2)

d. Danger due to weather

e. (Repealed) 

f. Search/canine teams possibly useful

g. Identify the statutory requirements and criteria for issuing a local, regional, or statewide Amber Alert § 52-34.1 and § 52-34.3. 39

h. Identify the statutory requirements and criteria for issuing a local, regional, or statewide Senior Alert § 52-34.4 of the Code of Virginia.

4. Search last known location first, surrounding area, nearby hazards, and vehicles.

5. Search homes of relatives and friends.

6. Search frequented locations.

7. Conduct neighborhood canvas.

8. Involvement of Department of Emergency Services.

9. Crime scene protection, if needed.

10. Collect, preserve, and maintain evidence.

11.  Use a Virginia State Police Missing Children Information Clearinghouse Form (State Police Form SP-183) to report a missing child as defined by the Code of Virginia § 52-32. Access the Virginia State Police Amber Alert Activation Request website or submit an Amber Alert Form to initiate an Alert for an abducted child. Use an affidavit for missing person age  21 or over (State Police Form SP- 67) to report a missing adult. Use the Virginia State Police Senior Alert Program Form to  request a local, regional, or statewide notification of a missing senior adult. 

12. Search protocol for person’s suffering from Alzheimer’s Disease or dementia:

a. Identify reasons that cause AD subjects to become lost easily.

b. Identify reasons that initiating a search effort is urgent.

c. Identify search crucials:

1.  Treat the point last seen as a crime scene and keep people out.

2. Check house and immediate grounds even if done already.

3. Notify media and ask for public assistance.

4. Notify post office and ask letter carriers to be on alert.

5. Alert local government people who are outside when working.

6.  Search at night.

7. Point last seen provides the best clues for searchers and dogs.

8. Others as may be noted by the instructor.

d. Identify characteristics of the lost/wanderer.

e. Identify critical initial actions including collection of search data.

f. Identify possible resources to aid in conducting a search:

1. Safe Return

2. Search and Rescue

3. Project Lifesaver

4. Tracking dogs

5. Others as may be identified by instructor

Instructor Note: Advise trainees that they will need to identify and follow department procedures to enter information into NCIC and VCIN as well as identify department policy and procedures on searches and will learn these as part of their department training.

1. Complete all documentation related to a lost person for entry into NCIC and VCIN.

2. Complete all documentation related to a missing person for entry into NCIC and VCIN.

3. Complete all documentation related to a kidnapped person for entry into NCIC and VCIN.

Performance Outcome 4.18.

Respond to a residential alarm and an in-progress alarm.

Training Objective Related to 4.18.

1. Given a written, audio-visual, or practical exercise, identify or demonstrate appropriate actions for a residential alarm and an in-progress alarm.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

Residential alarm:

4.18.1. Coordinate response with back-up units.

4.18.2. Use tactical approach:

4.18.2.1. Vehicle placement

4.18.2.2. Cover and concealment

4.18.2.3. Observe area

4.18.2.4. Avoid “police noises,” i.e., jangling keys, squeaky leather, radio.

4.18.3. Security check of area.

4.18.4. Contact complainant or responsible party.

In-progress alarm:

4.18.5. Coordinate units responding to the call.

4.18.6. Use tactical approach:

4.18.6.1.  Vehicle placement

4.18.6.2.  Cover and concealment

4.18.6.3.  Observe area.

4.18.6.4. Avoid “police noises,” i.e., jangling keys, squeaky leather, radio.

4.18.6.5. Methods for responding to crimes in progress and an example for each method.

4.18.6.6. Factors to be considered when determining the method to be utilized in response to crimes in progress.

4.18.6.7. Factors upon which an officer should base the selection of a response route.

4.18.6.8. Tactical responsibilities of the primary unit responding to a crime in progress.

4.18.7. Communicate with the manager or person in charge through dispatch or telephone to determine if the suspect is still on the premises or has left.

4.18.8. If suspect is still on premises, maintain cover position and treat as hostage situation from this point.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

Residential alarm:

1. Coordinate response with back-up units.

2. Use tactical approach:

a. Vehicle placement

b. Cover and concealment

c. Observe area

d. Avoid “police noises,” i.e., jangling keys, squeaky leather, radio.

3. Security check of area.

4. Contact complainant or responsible party.

Instructor Note: Advise trainees that they will need to identify department policy on false alarms as part of department training.

In-progress alarm:

1. Coordinate units responding to the call.

2. Use tactical approach

a. Vehicle placement

b. Cover and concealment

c. Observe area.

d. Avoid “police noises,” i.e., jangling keys, squeaky leather, radio.

e. Methods for responding to crimes in progress and an example for each method.

f. Factors to be considered when determining the method to be utilized in response to crimes in progress.

g. Factors upon which an officer should base the selection of a response route.

h.  Tactical responsibilities of the primary unit responding to a crime in progress.

3. Communicate with the manager or person in charge through dispatch or telephone to determine if the suspect is still on the premises or has left.

4. If suspect is still on premises, maintain cover position and treat as hostage situation from this point.

Performance Outcome 4.19.

Investigate suspicious person or activity.

Training Objective Related to 4.19.

1. Given a written, audio-visual or practical exercise, identify the legal requirements and procedures for stopping and interviewing a person related to suspicious activity.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.19.1. Define suspicious activity.

4.19.2. Identify and describe factors that make a specific activity suspicious.

4.19.3. Identify a consensual stop vs. investigative detention.

4.19.4. Define the purpose of a field interview.

4.19.5. Identify the legal basis for stopping and interviewing a person.

4.19.6. Identify three factors of those in the lesson plan that may lead to investigation of suspicious activity.

4.19.7. Identify procedures to be followed when interviewing a suspect who is part of the investigation of suspicious activity.

4.19.8. Identify enforcement options when dealing with juveniles who have committed offense(s.)

4.19.9. Identify procedures for responding to a prowler complaint.

4.19.10. Describe or conduct a field interview of a suspicious person conforming to constitutional requirements.

4.19.11. Identify factors that may contribute to biased policing.

4.19.12. Identify resources available to assist in the investigation of suspicious activity.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Define suspicious activity.

2. Identify and describe factors that make a specific activity suspicious (reasonable belief based on articulable facts that a person is guilty of a crime).

3. Identify a consensual stop vs. investigative detention.

4. Define the purpose of a field interview.

5. Identify the legal basis for stopping and interviewing a person:

a. Identify factors that permit conducting a pat down.

6. Identify factors that may lead to investigation of suspicious activity:

a. Sounds or noise out of place for the circumstances or environment.

b. Police observation of suspicious conduct.

c. Complaint of suspicious conduct.

d. Specific information from an informant that the suspect is committing or about to commit a crime.

e. A corroborated anonymous tip.

f. Refusal to leave an area secured by police officers.

g. The characteristics where the investigation occurs.

h. The time of the occurrence (day or night).

i. Any suspicious conduct of the person under investigation, such as an attempt to avoid officers on the discovery of their presence.  

j. The character of the offense of which the individual is suspected:

1. Talking with the suspect

7. Identify procedures to be followed when interviewing a suspect who is part of the investigation of suspicious activity:

a. Define the purpose of field interviews.

b. Identify the legal basis for stopping and interviewing a person.

c. Identify and determine age of suspect.

d. Identify if a crime has occurred.

e. Check for wants and warrants through VCIN and NCIC.

f. Take enforcement action and/or document field interview.

8. Identify enforcement options when dealing with juveniles who have committed offense(s):

a. Notify and release to parent/guardian or other responsible party.

b. Transport to juvenile intake.

c. Transport to juvenile detention.

9. Identify procedures for responding to a prowler complaint:

a. Coordinate response with back-up units.

b. Use tactical approach:

1. Vehicle placement

2. Cover and concealment

3. Observe area

c. Security check of area.

d. Contact complainant or responsible party.

10. Identify factors that may contribute to biased policing:

a. Family influence

b. Culture

c. Religion

d. Race

e. Gender

f. Environment/geographic influences

g. Socio-economic influences

h. Others as instructor may identify

11. Identify resources available to assist in the investigation of suspicious activity:

            a. Terrorist Screening Center

            b. Virginia Fusion Center                

Performance Outcome 4.20.

Search for a person in a building or environment.

Training Objective Related to 4.20.

1. Given a written or practical exercise, identify procedures to search for a person in a building or environment as applicable.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.20.1. Observe the scene.

4.20.2. Request backup/appropriate resources (such as canine or tactical unit).

4.20.3. Use appropriate search methods as applicable to building or environment.

4.20.4. Conduct search using officer safety procedures.

4.20.5. Proceed through building or area until person is found or building/area confirmed empty.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Observe the scene.

2. Request backup/appropriate resources (such as canine or tactical unit.)

3. Use appropriate search methods as applicable:

a. Grid

b. Line

c. Area

d. Expanding circle

4. Conduct search using officer safety procedures.

5. Proceed through building or area until person is found or building/area confirmed empty.

Performance Outcome 4.21.                                                

Identify and document signs of gang activity.

Training Objective Related to 4.21.

1. Given a written, audio-visual, or practical exercise, identify/document signs of gang activity.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.21.1. Common characteristics of youth gangs including but not limited to:

4.21.1.1. Initiation practices

4.21.1.2. Hand signals

4.21.1.3. Structured style of dress (colors, clothing type, headgear, etc.)

4.21.1.4. Markings, tattoos

4.21.1.5. Specific geographic territorial claim or identifiable leadership

4.21.1.6. Association with three or more individuals, one of whom is a juvenile, who identify themselves as a group by name or symbol and are involved in a pattern of recurrent felonious criminal conduct

4.21.1.6.1. Includes certain drug sales, distribution, transportation, possession and manufacturing crimes

4.21.1.6.2. Includes recruitment of juveniles into a street gang.

4.21.2. Define unlawful hazing of youth gang members.

4.21.2.1.Causing bodily injury by hazing of youth gang members or person seeking to become a gang member unlawful;

4.21.2.2. Recklessly or intentionally endanger the health or safety of a person to inflict bodily injury on a person in connection with or for the purpose of initiation, admission into or affiliation with or as a condition of continued membership in a youth gang or criminal street gang.

4.21.3. Information to record in VCIN for statutory reporting requirements.

4.21.4. Information to request of Department of Juvenile Justice regarding a juvenile’s potential involvement in street gang activity.

4.21.5. Identify gang free zones.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Common characteristics of youth gangs including but not limited to:

a. Initiation practices

b. Hand signals

c. Structured style of dress (colors, clothing type, headgear, etc.)

d. Markings, tattoos

e. Specific geographic territorial claim or identifiable leadership

f. Association with three or more individuals, one of whom is a juvenile, who identify themselves as a group by name or symbol and are involved in a pattern of recurrent felonious criminal conduct:

1. Includes certain drug sales, distribution, transportation, possession and manufacturing crimes

2. Includes recruitment of juveniles into a street gang.

2. Define unlawful hazing of youth gang members:

a. Causing bodily injury by hazing of youth gang members or person seeking to become a gang member unlawful.

b. Recklessly or intentionally endanger the health or safety of a person to inflict bodily injury on a person in connection with or for the purpose of initiation, admission into or affiliation with or as a condition of continued membership in a youth gang or criminal street gang.

3. Information to record in VCIN for statutory reporting requirements. (§52-8.6 and 18.2-46.1).

4. Information to request of Department of Juvenile Justice regarding a juvenile’s potential involvement in street gang activity.

5. Identify gang free zones (Code of Virginia 18.2-46.3:3).

Performance Outcome 4.22.

Handle a runaway complaint.

Training Objective Related to 4.22.

1. Given a written or practical exam, identify procedures to handle a runaway complaint.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.22.1. Information to obtain for a runaway complaint:

4.22.1.1. Name

4.22.1.2. Age of runaway

4.22.1.3. Date, time last seen

4.22.1.4. Description/photo

4.22.1.5. Associates with him/her, if any

4.22.1.6. Previous incidents of running away

4.22.1.7. Suspicious circumstances

4.22.1.8. Known frequented locations

4.22.1.9. Conversations about running away and where the youth would go

4.22.1.10. Complete a Virginia State Police Missing Children Information Clearinghouse Form (State Police Form SP-183) to report a missing child person as defined by the Code of Virginia § 52-32 and enter the data into the Virginia Criminal Information Network and the National Crime Information Center Systems.

4.22.1.11 (Repealed)

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Information to obtain for a runaway complaint:

a. Name

b. Age of runaway

c. Date, time last seen

d. Description/photo

e. Associates with him/her, if any

f. Previous incidents of running away

g. Suspicious circumstances

h. Known frequented locations

i. Conversations about running away and where the youth would go

j. Complete Virginia State Police Missing Children Information Clearinghouse Form (State Police Form SP-183) to report a missing child as defined by the Code of Virginia § 52-32 and enter the data into the Virginia Criminal Information Network and the National Crime Information Center Systems.

k. (Repealed)

2. Cross-reference standard 2.6 regarding circumstances for dealing with juveniles and emphasize those areas where a detention order is not needed to pick up a juvenile and return him or her to his or her domicile.

Instructor Note: Advise trainees that they will need to identify department policy related to handling a runaway complaint as part of their department training.

Performance Outcome 4.23.

Search a suspect vehicle with probable cause or incident to arrest. Transport and escort arrestees or prisoners to various destinations, searching patrol vehicles before and after transport.

Training Objective Related to 4.23.

1. Given a practical exercise, search a vehicle for weapons, contraband or evidence.

2. Given a written or practical exercise, identify or demonstrate the procedures for escorting and transporting arrestees or prisoners.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.23.1. Search of a vehicle with probable cause or incident to arrest.

4.23.1.1. Identify techniques to search a vehicle for the following:

4.23.1.1.1. Weapons

4.23.1.1.2. Contraband

4.23.1.1.3. Evidence

4.23.2. Transport and escort of arrestees or prisoners to various destinations.

4.23.2.1. Search and secure arrestee prior to departure to an outside destination and prior to leaving facility to return to place of incarceration:

4.23.2.1.1. Handcuff arrestee/prisoner with hands to rear.

4.23.2.1.2. Search waistband and pockets for weapons.

4.23.2.1.3. Search head to toe.

4.23.2.1.4. Move to the patrol vehicle:

4.23.2.1.4.1. Protect head while placing arrestee/prisoner in vehicle.

4.23.2.1.4.2. Fasten seatbelt around arrestee/prisoner.

4.23.2.2. Vehicle with cage:

4.23.2.2.1. Place in right rear, handcuffed behind the back, and seatbelted in.

4.23.2.2.2 Adjust mirror to provide visual observation of arrestee/prisoner.

4.23.2.3. Vehicle without cage:

4.23.2.3.1. Place in right front seat, handcuffed behind the back and seatbelted in (use leg restraints if permitted by department policy).

4.23.2.3.2. Make sure weapon is secure or placed away from potential access by arrestee or prisoner.

4.23.2.3.3. Use peripheral vision to observe arrestee or prisoner.

4.23.2.4. Search vehicle after transport of every arrestee or prisoner.

4.23.2.5. Identify appropriate medical and biohazard precautions to take should arrestee possibly have an airborne or bloodborne pathogen:

4.23.2.5.1. Protective masks and personal protective equipment.

4.23.2.5.2. Cleaning hands, face, masks and vehicle after transport.

4.23.2.6. Use proper escort techniques during movement by foot from place to place.

4.23.2.6.1. Handcuff arrestee/prisoner with hands to rear.

4.23.2.6.2. Search waistband and pockets for weapons.

4.23.2.6.3. Search head to toe.

4.23.2.6.4. Walk behind the arrestee/prisoner with weapon side away.

4.23.2.6.5. Allow reaction space if possible.

4.23.2.6.6. Observe arrestee/prisoner at each destination.

4.23.2.7. Meet federal requirements for movement of arrestees/prisoners through public transportation such as train or plane.

4.23.2.8. Overall:

4.23.2.8.1. Do not let arrestee/prisoner out of your sight.

4.23.2.8.2 Do not relax after cuffing.

4.23.2.8.3. Use additional restraints or flex cuffs according to department policy.

4.23.2.8.4. Make contact with arm of an arrestee/prisoner if needed for arrestee/prisoner balance.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Search of a vehicle under probable cause or incident to arrest:

a. Reference legal section (2. 32.)

b. Identify techniques for a vehicle search.

1. Weapons

2. Contraband

3. Evidence

2. Transport and escort of arrestees or prisoners to various destinations.

a. Search and secure arrestee prior to departure to an outside destination and prior to leaving facility to return to place of incarceration:

1. Handcuff arrestee/prisoner with hands to rear.

2. Search waistband and pockets for weapons.

3. Search head to toe (Use appropriate techniques for cross-gender searches.).

4. Move to the patrol vehicle:

a. Protect head while placing arrestee/prisoner in vehicle.

b. Fasten seatbelt around arrestee/prisoner.

5. Vehicle with cage:

a. Place in right rear, handcuffed and seatbelted in.

b. Adjust mirror to provide visual observation of arrestee/prisoner.

6. Vehicle without cage:

a. Place in right front seat, handcuffed behind the back and seatbelted in (use leg restraints if permitted by department policy).

b. Make sure weapon is secure or placed away from potential access by arrestee or prisoner.

c. Use peripheral vision to observe arrestee or prisoner.

b. Search vehicle after transport of every arrestee or prisoner.

c. Identify appropriate medical and biohazard precautions to take should arrestee possibly have an airborne or bloodborne pathogen:

1. Protective masks and personal protective equipment.

2. Cleaning hands, face, masks and vehicle after transport.

d. Use proper escort techniques during movement by foot from place to place:

1. Handcuff arrestee/prisoner with hands to rear.

2. Search waistband and pockets for weapons.

3. Search head to toe.

4. Walk behind the arrestee/prisoner with weapon side away.

5. Allow reaction space if possible.

6. Observe arrestee/prisoner while at each destination.

e. Meet federal requirements for transportation of arrestees/prisoners through public transportation such as train or plane.

f. Overall:

1. Do not let suspect/arrestee out of your sight.

2. Do not relax after cuffing.

3. Use additional restraints or flex cuffs according to department policy.

4. Contact with arm of an arrestee/prisoner may be made if needed for arrestee/prisoner balance.

Instructor Notes: Advise trainees that they will need to identify department policy on transporting intoxicated persons to detox, jail or lockup during department training. Advise trainees that they will need to identify department policy on use of restraints and safety equipment while transporting arrestees during department training.

Performance Outcome 4.24.

Conduct stationary and moving surveillance of individuals, vehicles, specific activities, etc.

Training Objective Related to 4.24.

1. Given a written exercise, identify factors to consider in conducting stationary and moving surveillance of individuals, vehicles, specific activities, etc.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.24.1. Identify reasons to conduct stationary surveillance.

4.24.2. Identify locations from which surveillance may be conducted.

4.24.3. Identify equipment that may assist in a surveillance.

4.24.4. Identify ways to stay alert during surveillance.

4.24.5. Identify methods for initiating, conducting, and concluding a moving surveillance of individuals, vehicles, activities, etc.,

4.24.6. Identify reasons to conclude a surveillance.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Identify reasons to conduct stationary surveillance:

a. Locate a suspect.

b. Identify and locate specific illegal activity.

c. Protect persons or property.

d. Others as may be identified.

2. Identify locations from which surveillance may be conducted:

a. Using a car.

b. Using another building near the one where person or activity may be located.

c. Using natural surroundings (trees, bushes, etc.).

3. Identify equipment that may assist in a surveillance:

a. Binoculars/telescope

b. Camera

c. Radio communications

d. Disguises

e. Newspapers, books, maps, etc.

4. Identify ways to stay alert during surveillance:

a. Review photo in order to identify a person being sought from a distance.

b. Frequently check for person or for a specific activity (such as a drug buy or graffiti starting).

c. Change positions with moves that are appropriate for the surveillance setting.

5. Identify methods for initiating, conducting, and concluding a moving surveillance of individuals, vehicles, activities, etc.:

a. Identify why the individual(s) are wanted.

b. Identify numbers of people and/or vehicles needed to conduct the moving surveillance.

c. Identify the communications coordination needed.

d. Identify the approach to be used as a coordinated effort to effect arrest.

e. Document the information related to the surveillance from start to end.

6. Identify reasons to conclude a surveillance:

a. Recognize the person or activity that is in violation of the law.

b. Move to make the arrest or direct an arrest team as part of a coordinated effort.

c. Determine that the person or activity is not in violation of the law and end the surveillance.

Performance Outcome 4.25.

Pursue a suspected offender on foot.

Training Objective Related to 4.25.

1. Given a written or practical exercise, identify considerations for safely pursuing a suspected offender on foot.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.25.1. Secure vehicle.

4.25.2. Use radio to give location, description of suspect.

4.25.3. Be aware of hazards (natural and manmade).

4.25.4. Coordinate pursuit with responding units.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Secure vehicle.

2. Use radio to give location, description of suspect.

3. Be aware of hazards (natural and manmade).

4. Coordinate pursuit with responding units.

a. Back-up

b. K-9 (if available)

c. Aviation (if available)

d. Any other special units available

Performance Outcome 4.26.

Instruct bystanders to assist.

Training Objective Related to 4.26.

1. Given a written exercise, identify the Code of Virginia section related to refusal to assist a law enforcement officer and the circumstances wherein an officer may call upon a bystander to assist.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.26.1. The Code of Virginia section related to refusal to assist a law enforcement officer (§18.2-463).

4.26.2. The circumstances wherein an officer may call upon a bystander for assistance:

4.26.2.1. Life of the officer or other person may be saved by bystander assistance.

4.26.2.2. A crime may be prevented and the risk to the bystander and public is not grave.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. The Code of Virginia section Related to refusal to assist a law enforcement officer (§18.2-463).

2. The circumstances wherein an officer may call upon a bystander for assistance:

a. Life of the officer or other person may be saved by bystander assistance.

b. A crime may be prevented and the risk to the bystander and public is not grave.

Performance Outcome 4.27.

Direct actions of officers or other emergency personnel arriving to assist.

Training Objective Related to 4.27.

1. Given a written or practical exercise, identify factors to be considered when directing actions of officer(s) or other emergency personnel arriving to assist.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.27.1. Type of incident

4.27.2. Location

4.27.3. Number of suspects

4.27.4. Weapon(s) involved

4.27.5. Citizens/vehicles in area

4.27.6. Number of officers available

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Type of incident

2. Location

3. Number of suspects

4. Weapon(s) involved

5. Citizens/vehicles in area

6. Number of officers available

Performance Outcome 4.28.

Guard an arrested suspect.

Training Objective Related to 4.28.

1. Given a written or practical exercise, identify safety and security considerations and techniques related to guarding an arrested subject.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.28.1. Officer and arrestee safety:

4.28.1.1. Officer safety precautions:

4.28.1.1.1. Secure weapons.

4.28.1.1.2. Do not relax after cuffing.

4.28.1.1.3. Be aware of others not under arrest who may attempt to assist arrestee.

4.28.1.2. Arrestee safety precautions:

4.28.1.2.1. Possible injuries during arrest.

4.28.1.2.2.  Possible attempts by others to injure the arrestee.

4.28.2. Techniques related to guarding an arrested subject:

4.28.2.1. Handcuff arrestee/prisoner with hands to rear.

4.28.2.2.. Search waistband and pockets for weapons.

4.28.2.3. Walk behind the arrestee with weapon side away.

4.28.2.4. Allow reaction space, if possible.

4.28.2.5. Observe arrestee at all times.

4.28.2.6. Use additional restraints or flex cuffs if needed and according to department policy.

4.28.2.7. Make contact with arm of an arrestee if needed.

4.28.2.8. Be aware of surroundings and other persons.

4.28.2.9. Move arrested subject(s) to a safe location for his/her physical safety.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Officer and arrestee safety:

a. Officer safety precautions:

1. Secure weapons.

2. Do not relax after cuffing.

3. Be aware of others not under arrest who may attempt to assist arrestee.

b. Arrestee safety precautions:

1. Possible injuries during arrest.

2. Possible attempts by others to injure the arrestee.

2. Techniques:

1. Handcuff arrestee/prisoner with hands to rear.

2. Search waistband and pockets for weapons.

3. Walk behind the arrestee with weapon side away.

4. Allow reaction space, if possible.

5. Observe arrestee at all times.

6. Use additional restraints or flex cuffs if needed and according to department policy.

7. Make contact with arm of an arrestee if needed.

8. Be aware of surroundings and other persons.

9. Move arrested subject(s) to a safe location for his/her physical safety.

Performance Outcome 4.29.

Verify that a warrant is valid on its face.

Training Objective Related to 4.29.

1. Given a written exercise, identify the factors to be present for a valid warrant.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.29.1. For a search warrant:

4.29.1.1. Check dates.

4.29.1.2. Check description of location and/or address.

4.29.1.3. Check affidavit information.

4.29.1.4. Check articles to be searched fo.r

4.29.1.5. Check criminal code violation.

4.29.1.6. Check for signature of judge, magistrate or clerk of the court.

4.29.2. For an arrest warrant:

4.29.2.1. Date

4.29.2.2. Charge

4.29.2.3. Identifying information of person to be arrested

4.29.2.4. Signature of magistrate, judge or clerk of court

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. For a search warrant:

a. Check dates.

b. Check description of location and/or address.

c. Check affidavit information.

d. Check articles to be searched for.

e. Check criminal code violation.

f. Check for signature of judge, magistrate or clerk of the court.

2. For an arrest warrant:

a. Date

b. Charge

c. Identifying information of person to be arrested.

d. Signature of magistrate, judge or clerk of court.

3. No changes are to be made to either a search or arrest warrant after it is signed and issued by the judge, magistrate or clerk of the court.

Performance Outcome 4.30.

Conduct a preliminary investigation of events related to fraud.

Training Objective Related to 4.30.

1. Given a written or practical exercise, identify the duties of the first responding officer to events related to fraud.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.30.1. Notify proper authorities.

4.30.2. Protect the crime scene according to requirements of the nature of the crime.

4.30.3. Locate witnesses.

4.30.4. Assist as needed on scene.

4.30.5. Complete necessary reports.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Notify proper authorities.

2. Protect the crime scene according to requirements of the nature of the crime.

3. Locate witnesses.

4. Assist as needed on scene.

5. Complete necessary reports:

a. Determining if false ID was used.

b. Victim statement

c. Witness statement (if any)

d. Other evidence (if any)

Performance Outcome 4.31.

Respond to and conduct a preliminary investigation of events related to gambling.

Training Objective Related to 4.31.

1. Given a written exercise, identify the duties of the first responding officer to events related to gambling.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.31.1. Notify proper authorities.

4.31.2. Protect the crime scene according to requirements of the nature of the crime.

4.31.3. Locate witnesses.

4.31.4. Assist as needed on scene.

4.31.5. Complete necessary reports.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Notify proper authorities.

2. Protect the crime scene according to requirements of the nature of the crime.

3. Locate witnesses.

4. Assist as needed on scene.

5. Complete necessary reports.

Performance Outcome 4.32.

Respond to and conduct a preliminary investigation of events related to prostitution and sexual offenses.

Training Objective Related to 4.32.

1. Given a written or practical exercise, identify the duties of the first responding officer to events related to prostitution and sexual offenses.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.32.1. Notify proper authorities.

4.32.2. Protect the crime scene according to requirements of the nature of the crime.

4.32.3. Locate witnesses.

4.32.4. Assist as needed on scene.

4.32.5. Complete necessary reports.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Notify proper authorities.

2. Protect the crime scene according to requirements of the nature of the crime.

3. Locate witnesses.

4. Assist as needed on scene.

5. Complete necessary reports.

Performance Outcome 4.33.

Conduct a preliminary investigation of events related to forgery/uttering and counterfeiting, and follow-up when assigned.

Training Objective Related to 4.33.

1. Given a written exercise, identify the duties of the first responding officer to conduct a preliminary investigation of events related to forgery/uttering and counterfeiting.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.33.1. Notify proper authorities.

4.33.2. Protect the crime scene according to requirements of the nature of the crime.

4.33.3. Locate witnesses.

4.33.4. Assist as needed on scene.

4.33.5. Complete necessary reports.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Notify proper authorities.

2. Protect the crime scene according to requirements of the nature of the crime.

3. Locate witnesses.

4. Assist as needed on scene.

5. Complete necessary reports.

Performance Outcome 4.34.

Inform a crime victim about the procedures to file a claim.

Training Objectives Related to 4.34.

1. Given a written or practical exercise, identify information to provide to victims about procedures to file claims pursuant to the Victim/Witness Assistance Program.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.34.1. Victim/Witness Assistance Program.

4.34.2. Requirement to provide written information to victims under the Code of Virginia.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Victim/Witness Assistance Program.

2. Requirement to provide written information to victims under the Code of Virginia, §19.2-11.01(a).

Instructor Note: Contact the DCJS Victim/Witness Assistance Program for materials useful to developing a detailed lesson plan for this objective.

Performance Outcome 4.35.

Inform a crime victim about the procedures to pursue prosecution.

Training Objectives Related to 4.35.

1. Given a written, audio-visual, or practical exercise, provide information to crime victims about the procedures to pursue prosecution.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.35.1. Procedures to obtain a warrant.

4.35.2. General process that occurs in prosecuting an arrested person.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Procedures to obtain a warrant.

2. General process that occurs in prosecuting an arrested person.

Performance Outcome 4.36.

Determine the need for and type of assistance required related to a medical aid call.

Training Objectives Related to 4.36.

1. Given a written or practical exercise, identify the responsibilities of the first responding officer for a medical aid call.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.36.1. Render basic first aid or CPR, if needed.

4.36.2. Communicate with emergency services regarding victim.

4.36.3. Interview witnesses.

4.36.4. Record findings in a standard report to assist investigation in determining what, if any, crime has occurred.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Define aid call or medical assistance and statutory coverage (§8.01-225).

2. Render medical assistance in accordance with training:

a. Recognize bio-hazard possibilities.

b. Use appropriate precautions.

3. Maintain awareness of potential criminal activity and if identified, respond accordingly.

4. Communicate with emergency services regarding victim.

5. Interview witnesses.

6. Record findings in a standard report to assist investigation in determining what, if any, crime has occurred.

Instructor Note: Emphasize using appropriate equipment.

Performance Outcome 4.37.

Assess the need of an arrestee for medical attention.

Training Objectives Related to 4.37.

1. Given a written exercise, identify steps to cover in assessing the physical condition of an arrestee to determine need for medical attention.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.37.1. Visually inspect for visible injuries.

4.37.2. Question arrestee on past history, i.e., diabetes, epilepsy, severe allergies.

4.37.3. Observe conduct for abnormal behavior.

4.37.4. If in doubt, contact medical personnel.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Visual inspection for visible injuries using appropriate precautions.

2. Questions to ask arrestee on past history, i.e., diabetes, epilepsy, severe allergies.

3. Observing conduct for abnormal behavior.

4. In doubt, contact medical personnel.

Performance Outcome 4.38.

Respond to calls for service related to disasters and various rescue operations.

Training Objectives Related to 4.38.

1. Given a written exercise, identify the role of law enforcement personnel at the scene of a disaster.

2. Given a written exercise, identify the functions of the patrol officer/first responder as part of the Incident Command System.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.38.1. Identify and explain the Code section enabling local counties, cities, and towns to establish local ordinances that deal with disaster.

4.38.2. Define what generally constitutes a disaster.

4.38.3. Identify factors related to handling disasters (air crashes, etc.) and various rescue operations involving the military.

4.38.4. Define the Incident Command System (ICS):

4.38.4.1. Identify the components of ICS.

4.38.4.2. Identify the structure of ICS.

4.38.4.3. Identify the purpose of unified command under ICS.

4.38.4.4. Identify the role of the first responding patrol officer under ICS.

4.38.4.5. Identify communications protocol under ICS.

4.38.4.6. Identify the transfer of command by the first responding patrol officer under ICS.

4.38.5. Explain the purpose of the National Incident Management System (NIMS):

4.38.5.1. Identify the Executive Order of the Governor requiring NIMS in Virginia.

4.38.5.2. Identify the presidential directive related to NIMS.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Identify and explain the Code section enabling local counties, cities, and towns to establish local ordinances that deal with disaster. (§15.2 and §44-146.19).

2. Define what generally constitutes a disaster.

3. Identify factors related to handling disasters (air crashes, etc.) and various rescue operations involving the military.

4. Define the Incident Command System (ICS):

a. Identify the components of ICS.

b. Identify the structure of ICS.

c. Identify the purpose of unified command under ICS.

d. Identify the role of the first responding patrol officer under ICS.

e. Identify communications protocol under ICS.

f. Identify the transfer of command by the first responding patrol officer under ICS.

5. Explain the purpose of the National Incident Management System (NIMS):

a. Identify the Executive Order of the Governor requiring NIMS in Virginia.

b. Identify the presidential directive related to NIMS.

Instructor Note: Advise trainees that they will identify components of department emergency response plan for disasters as part of their department training.

Special Note: Completion of the four-hour training Incident Command System – Awareness Level will accomplish the goals of number 4 and 5 of this lesson plan guide and prepare the trainee to be tested on it.

Performance Outcome 4.39.

Direct drivers using flashlight, illuminated baton, whistle or hand signals while controlling traffic and use proper body mechanics for directing multiple lanes of traffic.

Training Objectives Related to 4.39.

Given a practical exercise:

1. Direct traffic using hand signals and whistle to instruct drivers.

2. Demonstrate techniques for directing traffic using a flashlight or illuminated baton.

3. Demonstrate proper body mechanics to direct multiple lanes of traffic.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.39.1. Procedures for stopping traffic.

4.39.2. Procedures for starting traffic.

4.39.3. Procedures for slowing traffic.

4.39.4. Body mechanics for twisting in any direction.

4.39.5. Flexion/extension of arm and hand (pulling in or extending arm and hand).

4.39.6. Rotation of arm and hand.

4.39.7. Abduction/adduction of arm (movement of arm toward body and away from body).

4.39.8. Circumlocution of arm (circular movement of arm).

4.39.9. Sustaining repetitive upper extremity movement for a prolonged period.

4.39.10. Use of whistle for directing traffic.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Techniques for using hand signals, flashlight, or illuminated baton to direct traffic following correct procedures:

a. Procedures for stopping traffic.

b. Procedures for starting traffic.

c. Procedures for slowing traffic.

d. Procedures for changing direction of traffic.

e. Procedures for merging traffic.

2. Proper body mechanics for directing multiple lanes of traffic:

a. Body mechanics for twisting in any direction.

b. Flexion/extension of arm and hand (pulling in or extending arm and hand).

c. Rotation of arm and hand.

d. Abduction/adduction of arm (movement of arm toward body and away from body).

e. Circumlocution of arm (circular movement of arm).

f. Sustaining repetitive upper extremity movement for a prolonged period.

3. Working traffic control at special functions:

a. Identify pedestrian control techniques to utilize.

b. Identify emergency procedures for unexpected situations.

c. Identify procedures for controlling traffic and pedestrians in the area for the duration of the function.

4. DO NOT use traffic flares to direct traffic in place of a flashlight or lighted baton at any time. The phosphorus on the flare creates additional hazards.

Performance Outcome 4.40.

Conduct a traffic stop resulting in an enforcement action.

Training Objective Related to 4.40.

1. Given a practical exercise, conduct a traffic stop resulting in an enforcement action.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.40.1. Follow suspect vehicle to observe traffic violations conforming to constitutional requirements and accepted motor vehicle safety rules:

4.40.1.1. Identify traffic offenses that would support a stop.

4.40.1.1.1. Identify location and traffic flow requirements.

4.40.1.1.2. Select position that provides best observation and access point.

4.40.1.1.3. Identify possible violations in a traffic flow.

4.40.1.1.4. Identify time of day.

4.40.1.1.5. Identify actions to take.

4.40.1.1.6. Identify any hazards that would hinder or prevent any officer from enforcing traffic laws.

4.40.1.1.7. Definition of a pretext stop.

4.40.1.2. Identify situations in which there is no basis for a stop:

4.40.1.2.1. Bias based stop.

4.40.1.2.2. Inappropriately stopping a motorist because of:

4.40.1.2.2.1. Race

4.40.1.2.2.2. Color

4.40.1.2.2.3. Religion

4.40.1.2.2.4. Sex

4.40.1.2.2.5. National origin

4.40.1.2.2.6. Disability

4.40.1.2.3. Inappropriate uses of a pretext stop.

4.40.2. Identify procedures for initiating a traffic stop and execute a stop:

4.40.2.1. Communications

4.40.2.2. Location

4.40.2.3. Traffic hazards

4.40.2.4. Patrol car position and use of equipment

4.40.2.5. Safe approach to stopped vehicle observing for suspicious actions by occupants:

4.40.2.5.1. Officer/public safety concerns

4.40.2.5.2. Criminal activity signs:

4.40.2.5.2.1.  Location 

4.40.2.5.2.2.  Actions

4.40.2.5.2.3.  Odors

4.40.2.5.2.4. Time of day

4.40.2.5.2.5.  Plain view

4.40.2.5.3. Evaluate activity and determine if and what type of additional law enforcement response is needed.

4.40.2.5.4. Identify if any probable cause would allow the officer to conduct a search of any part or all of the vehicle.

4.40.3. Identify the steps of initial officer/violator contact:

4.40.3.1. Professional demeanor.

4.40.3.2. Ask for driver’s license and vehicle registration/explain reason for the stop.

4.40.3.3. Provide instructions to driver and occupants to remain until you return.

4.40.4. Identify the steps of determining appropriate enforcement action:

4.40.4.1. Observe a license for defects that suggest tampering.

4.40.4.2. Verify the validity of the license with communications to determine if it is currently valid, suspended, or revoked:

4.40.4.2.1. Check for legal presence in the United States.

4.40.4.2.2. Look for a “9” in the restriction field.

4.40.4.2.3. Check wording on the reverse side that says “9: Limited Duration” (see expiration date on front).

4.40.4.2.4. Any driver whose license shows a violation of legal presence shall be treated as driving without a valid license. These individuals will have to show proof of legal presence again to DMV to obtain another license or ID card.

4.40.4.3. Check VCIN, NCIC, DMV.

4.40.4.4. Evaluate facts of the situation to determine if verbal warning or summons is appropriate:

4.40.4.4.1. Nature of Offense

4.40.4.4.2. Explanation for action

4.40.4.4.3. Traffic conditions

4.40.4.4.4. Roadway conditions

4.40.4.4.5. Weather

4.40.4.4.6. Time of day

4.40.4.4.7. Based on actions, not attitude

4.40.4.4.8.. Unusual circumstances:

4.40.4.4.8.1. Diplomat

4.40.4.4.8.2. Legislator

4.40.4.4.8.3. Foreign nationals

4.40.4.4.9. Ignition interlock requirements

4.40.5. Safely approach vehicle to return license and registration and give warning:

4.40.5.1.  Articulate possible dangers/consequences of violation.

4.40.5.2. Articulate police concern for safety of motorists.

4.40.6. Complete and safely approach vehicle to deliver a Virginia Uniform Traffic Summons:

4.40.6.1. Complete all information prompts on summons.

4.40.6.2. Select correct Virginia Code section.

4.40.6.3. Fully explain the summons to the violator:

4.40.6.3.1. Reason for the summons (charge) according to state motor vehicle code.

4.40.6.3.2. Signature is a promise to appear or pay fine before the court date.

4.40.6.3.3. Signature is not an admission of guilt.

4.40.6.3.4. Procedure for pleading guilty and paying fine.

4.40.6.3.5. Procedure for court appearance.

4.40.6.4. Obtain signature/explain consequences of failure to sign.

4.40.6.5. Issue the appropriate copy to the violator.

4.40.7. Identify items to document in field notes pertaining to a traffic stop:

4.40.7.1. Description of the violation.

4.40.7.2. Conditions related to the violation.

4.40.7.3. Violator actions.

4.40.7.4. Enforcement action.

4.40.7.5 Description of any equipment or procedures used in the action.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Follow suspect vehicle to observe traffic violations conforming to constitutional requirements and accepted motor vehicle safety rules:

a. Identify traffic offenses that would support a stop:

1. Identify location and traffic flow requirements.

2.  Select position that provides best observation and access point.

3. Identify possible violations in a traffic flow.

4. Identify time of day.

5. Identify actions to take.

6. Identify any hazards that would hinder or prevent any officer from enforcing traffic laws.

7. Definition of a pretext stop: Use of any violation of law, no matter how trivial, as a basis for stopping a motorist for the purpose of further some other legitimate law enforcement function.

Example: Law enforcement receives a tip that a certain vehicle is transporting three kilos of cocaine. Because the information is unsubstantiated, an officer cannot make a stop based on it, but the officer can stop the vehicle for going 26 MPH in a 25 MPH zone.

b. Identify situations in which there is no basis for a stop:

1. Bias based stop

2. Inappropriately stopping a motorist because of:

a. Race

b. Color

c. Religion

d. Sex

e. National origin

f. Disability

c. Inappropriate uses of a pretext stop – stopping a vehicle using a 26 MPH in a 25 MPH zone not to engage in further a legitimate law enforcement function or having a purpose such as provoking someone or to provide cover for bias based policing.

2. Identify procedures for initiating a traffic stop and execute a stop:

a. Communications

b. Location

c. Traffic hazards

d. Patrol car position and use of equipment

e. Safe approach to stopped vehicle observing for suspicious actions by occupants:

1. Officer/public safety concerns

2. Criminal activity signs:

a. Location

b. Actions

c. Odors

d. Time of day

e. Plain view

3. Evaluate activity and determine if and what type of additional law enforcement response is needed.

4. Identify if any probable cause would allow the officer to conduct a search of any part or all of the vehicle.

3. Identify the steps of initial officer/violator contact:

a. Professional demeanor/courteous communication skills.

b. Ask for driver’s license and vehicle registration/explain reason for the stop.

c. Provide instructions to driver and occupants to remain until you return.

4. Identify the steps of determining appropriate enforcement action:

a. Observe a license for defects that suggest tampering.

b. Verify the validity of the license with communications to determine if it is currently valid, suspended, or revoked:

1. Check for legal presence in the United States.

2. Look for a “9” in the restriction field.

3. Check wording on the reverse side that says “9: Limited Duration” (see expiration date on front).

4. Any driver whose license shows a violation of legal presence shall be treated as driving without a valid license. These individuals will have to show proof of legal presence again to DMV to obtain another license or ID card.

c. Check VCIN, NCIC, DMV

d. Evaluate facts of the situation to determine if verbal warning or summons is appropriate:

1. Nature of Offense

2. Explanation for action

3. Traffic conditions

4. Roadway conditions

5. Weather

6. Time of day

7. Based on actions, not attitude

8. Unusual circumstances

a. Diplomat

b. Legislator

c. Foreign nationals

9. Ignition interlock requirements (§18.2-272)

5. Safely approach vehicle to return license and registration and give warning

a. Articulate possible dangers/consequences of violation

b. Articulate police concern for safety of motorists

c. Courteously disengage from the stop if no further action is needed.

6. Complete and safely approach vehicle to deliver a Virginia Uniform Traffic Summons

a. Complete all information prompts on summons

b. Select correct Virginia Code section

c. Fully explain the summons to the violator

1. Reason for the summons (charge) according to state motor vehicle code

2. Signature is a promise to appear or pay fine before the court date

3. Signature is not an admission of guilt

4. Procedure for pleading guilty and paying fine

5. Procedure for court appearance

d. Obtain signature/explain consequences of failure to sign

e. Issue the appropriate copy to the violator

f. Courteously disengage from the stop.

7. Identify items to document in field notes pertaining to a traffic stop:

a. Description of the violation.

b. Conditions related to the violation.

c. Violator actions.

d. Enforcement action.

e. Description of any equipment or procedures used in the action.

Instructor Note: With respect to determining legal presence on a driver’s license, officers should be aware that this does NOT require that the officer inquire into the immigration status of the driver. The officer will treat the driver as driving without a valid driver’s license as noted in the standard. Officers should follow agency policy with respect to the enforcement of immigration laws for any other circumstances arising related to the traffic stop.

Performance Outcome 4.41.

Make a high risk motor vehicle stop.

Training Objectives Related to 4.41.

1. Given a written exercise, identify factors to consider in making a high risk motor vehicle stop.

2. Given a practical exercise, demonstrate the techniques to be used to effect a high risk stop.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.41.1. Identification of the circumstances under which high risk stop techniques can be used.

4.41.2. Identification of the officer and public safety considerations in high risk stop.

4.41.3. Demonstration of the techniques to be used to effect a high risk stop:

4.41.3.1. Evaluate traffic pattern.

4.41.3.2. Communication and coordination between primary and backup officers.

4.41.3.3. Vehicle position

4.41.3.4. Control stop for a safe area.

4.41.3.5. Do not approach car.

4.41.3.6. Necessary backup present

4.41.3.7. Supply commands to secure suspect vehicle.

4.41.3.8. Keys thrown out.

4.41.3.9.  Supply commands to evacuate suspect vehicle.

4.41.3.10.  Persons in car to exit one-by-one.

4.41.3.11. Control traffic in area.

4.41.3.12.  Remove suspects from car, if uncooperative

4.41.3.13. Appropriate level of force exercised to control occupants.

4.41.3.14. Coordinate separation/security of occupants.

4.41.3.15. Coordinate safety search of occupants and vehicle.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Identification of the circumstances under which high risk stop techniques can be used.

2. Identification of the officer and public safety considerations in high risk stop.

3. Demonstration of the techniques to be used to effect a high risk stop:

a. Evaluate traffic pattern.

b. Communication and coordination between primary and backup officers..

c. Vehicle position

d. Control stop for a safe area.

e. Do not approach car.

f. Necessary backup present

g. Supply commands to secure suspect vehicle.

h. Keys thrown out.

i. Supply commands to evacuate suspect vehicle.

j. Persons in car to exit one-by-one.

k. Control traffic in area.

l. Remove suspects from car, if uncooperative

m. Appropriate level of force exercised to control occupants.    

n. Coordinate separation/security of occupants.

o. Coordinate safety search of occupants and vehicle.

Performance Outcome 4.42.

Place emergency traffic control signs/signals or place barricades, flares, or traffic cone patterns on roadway to direct traffic, protect area, vehicle, etc.

Training Objectives Related to 4.42.

1. Given a written, audio-visual or practical exercise, identify placement of emergency traffic control signs/signals or place barricades, flares, or traffic cone patterns on roadway to direct traffic, protect area, vehicle, etc.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.42.1. Identify effectiveness of each piece of equipment for rerouting traffic:

4.42.1.1 Consider typical volume of traffic.

4.42.1.2. Consider weather conditions.

4.42.1.3. Hazardous conditions

4.42.2. Identify appropriate placement of barricades, flares, or cones.

4.42.3. Identify appropriate distance and location of placement for each.

4.42.4. Identify impact on traffic after placement.

4.42.5. Identify removal procedures after no longer needed.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Identify effectiveness of each piece of equipment for rerouting traffic:

a. Consider typical volume of traffic.

b. Consider weather conditions.

c. Hazardous conditions

2. Identify appropriate placement of barricades, flares, or cones.

3. Identify appropriate distance and location of placement for each.

4. Identify impact on traffic after placement.

5. Identify removal procedures after no longer needed.

Performance Outcome 4.43.

Ensure proper functioning of traffic control devices.

Training Objectives Related to 4.43.

1. Given a written, audio-visual, or practical exercise, identify the duties of an officer who discovers a malfunctioning traffic control device to ensure proper functioning.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.43.1. Identification of malfunctioning traffic control device.

4.43.2. Notification and information to provide proper authority:

4.43.2.1.  Location of device

4.43.2.2. Defect

4.43.2.3.  Urgency

4.43.2.4.  Traffic flow

4.43.3. Control of traffic direction, if needed.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Identify malfunctioning traffic control device.

2. Notification and information to provide proper authority:

a. Location of device

b. Defect

c. Urgency

d. Traffic flow

3. Take control of traffic direction if needed.

4. If knowledgeable about restarting or repairing, perform needed action.

Performance Outcome 4.44.

Assist stranded motorists and remove vehicles obstructing traffic.

Training Objectives Related to 4.44.

1. Given a written exercise, identify steps to assist stranded motorists and direct removal of vehicles obstructing traffic.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.44.1. Identify the type of problem.

4.44.2. Radio for proper assistance if impractical or unable to render assistance.

4.44.3. Set up proper protection for motorist.

4.44.4. Answer questions and make appropriate referrals.

4.44.5. Provide necessary traffic control.

4.44.6. Take applicable enforcement action.

4.44.7. Notify appropriate tow agency.

4.44.8. Notify owner of location of towed vehicle.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Identify the type of problem.

2. Radio for proper assistance if impractical or unable to render assistance.

3. Set up proper protection for motorist.

4. Answer questions and make appropriate referrals.

5. Provide necessary traffic control.

6. Take applicable enforcement action.

7. Notify appropriate tow agency.

8. Notify owner of location of towed vehicle.

Instructor Note: Advise trainees that they will need to identify department policy related to transportation of person(s) needing assistance as part of their department training.

Performance Outcome 4.45.

Identify and enforce traffic laws.

Training Objectives Related to 4.45.

1. Given a written exercise, identify Code of Virginia authority to enforce motor vehicle laws and the elements of the motor vehicle offenses noted in criteria.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.45.1. Identify the authority to enforce Code of Virginia motor vehicle laws.

4.45.2. Identify the elements of the following motor vehicle offenses:

4.45.2.1. Speed limits

4.45.2.2. Child safety seats

4.45.2.3. Reckless driving

4.45.2.4. Involuntary manslaughter

4.45.2.5. Habitual offender (Repealed effective 3/31/2021 (SB 1122))

4.45.2.6.  Driver/passenger seat belt usage/equipment violations

4.45.2.7.  Registration

4.45.2.8. Licenses

4.45.2.9. Proof of insurance for any type of vehicle

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Identify the authority to enforce Code of Virginia motor vehicle laws.

2. Identify the elements of the following motor vehicle offenses:

a. Speed limits

b. Child safety seats

c. Reckless driving (§46.2-862 Code of Virginia has changed this definition to 20 mph in excess of applicable maximum speed limit or in excess of 80 mph regardless of applicable maximum speed limit).

d. Involuntary manslaughter

e. Habitual offender (Repealed effective 3/31/2021 (SB 1122))

f. Driver/passenger seat belt usage/equipment violations

g. Registration

h. Licenses (§46.2-221.2 Code of Virginia has changed this definition related to members of the armed services and diplomatic services of the United States).

i. Proof of insurance for any type of vehicle

3. Identify the offenses covered by the Motor Vehicle Code §46.2.

4. Identify the responsibility of officers to clarify by discussing with a supervisor any uncertainty regarding motor vehicle infractions.

Performance Outcome 4.46.                                                

Respond to and conduct preliminary or follow-up investigation of Driving Under the Influence -- Intoxicants/ Drugs.

Training Objectives Related to 4.46.

1. Given a written exercise, identify the elements of Driving Under the Influence (DUI) related statutes of the Code of Virginia and the procedures for obtaining a blood test.

2. Given a practical exercise, conduct investigation of events related to Driving Under the Influence - intoxicants/drugs.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.46.1. Definition of Driving Under the Influence - (intoxicants/drugs) and elements of the crimes with Code citations

4.46.2. Observation of operator behavior to evaluate capability to operate vehicle safely

4.46.3. Communication with dispatch

4.46.4. Initiation of traffic stop

4.46.5. Initial contact and observation for signs of impairment

4.46.6. Conduct standardized field sobriety tests to include in accordance with the 24-hour NHTSA/IACP DWI:  Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus, Walk and Turn and One Leg Stand. (effective January 1, 2014):

4.46.6.1. If driver agrees, administer preliminary breath test.

4.46.6.2. If driver disagrees, evaluate for probable cause for a Driving Under the Influence arrest, if probable cause exists then arrest and advise of implied consent rights.

4.46.6.3. If probable cause exists for a DUI arrest and the driver has been taken to a medical facility for treatment or evaluation of his medical condition, the arresting officer may issue a summons for the violation while on the premises of the medical facility.

4.46.7. If unable to obtain breath sample and driver agrees, follow these procedures for obtaining a blood sample:

4.46.7.1 Take to hospital or lab

4.46.7.2. Have blood sample taken by certified medical personnel to include technician or nurse designated by the Circuit Court

4.46.7.3. Blood vials to be packaged, handled and submitted in accordance with the Department of Forensic Science “Breath Alcohol Rules and Regulations.”

4.46.7.3.1. If breath test administered indicates an alcohol level of .08 or greater, complete documentation for administrative license suspension.

4.46.7.3.2. If breath test administered indicates an alcohol level of .02 or greater on a restricted license, charge the person with driving after forfeiture or DUI conviction. (§18.2-267)

4.46.8. If driver has been arrested and refuses the breath or blood test (Birchfield v. North Dakota, 136 S. Ct. 2160 (2016)):

4.46.8.1. Refusal of breath:  1st refusal civil offense.  Subsequent refusals within 10 years criminal offense - Class 1 misdemeanor.

4.46.8.2.  Refusal of blood:  Always a civil offense.

4.46.8.3. Advise of implied consent rights

4.46.8.4. Arresting officer shall advise DUI arrestee from a form provided by the Office of the Executive Secretary of the Supreme Court and that the arresting officer shall acknowledge on such form that he has read the form to the arrestee.

4.46.8.5. Complete documentation for administrative license suspension.

4.46.8.6 Take the arrestee to the magistrate. Give the magistrate the executed advisement form to attach to the warrant or summons.

4.46.9. Prepare field notes for prosecution for Driving Under the Influence (DUID) case and submit a copy to the forensic laboratory.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Definition of DWI - (intoxicants/drugs) and elements of the crimes with Code citations §18.2-271, §18.2-266, §18.2-267, §18.2-269, §46.2-301, §46.2-341.3 thru 46.2-341.32, §46.2-390.1, §46.2-391.

2. Observation of operator behavior to evaluate capability to operate vehicle safely:

a. Swerving for no apparent reason

b. Head nodding to possibly indicate sleepiness

c. Approaching other cars too closely

d. Running off road on to shoulder of road

e. Driving too slowly

f. Others as may be identified

3. Communication with dispatch

4. Initiation of traffic stop

5. Initial contact and observation for signs of impairment

6. Identify methods for preliminary breath testing of blood alcohol content and procedures to follow for each method for accurate results

7. Conduct field sobriety tests in accordance with the 24-Hour NHTSA/IACP DWI Detection and Standardized Field Sobriety Tests:

a. If driver agrees, administer preliminary breath test to test blood alcohol content

b. If driver disagrees, evaluate for probable cause for a Driving Under the Influence arrest, if probable cause exists then arrest and advise of implied consent rights

c. If probable cause exists for a DUI arrest and the driver has been taken to a medical facility for treatment or evaluation of his medical condition, the arresting officer may issue a summons for the violation while on the premises of the medical facility.

8. If driver disagrees, evaluate for probable cause for a DUI arrest, if probable cause exists then arrest and advise of implied consent rights

9. If unable to obtain breath sample and driver agrees, follow these procedures for obtaining a blood sample:

a. Take to hospital or lab

b. Have blood sample taken by certified medical personnel to include technician or nurse designated by the Circuit Court.

c. Blood vials to be packaged, handled and submitted in accordance with the Division of Forensic Science “Breath Alcohol Rules and Regulations”

d. If breath test administered indicates an alcohol level of .08 or greater, complete documentation for administrative license suspensionIf breath test administered indicates an alcohol level of .02 or greater on a restricted license, charge the person with driving after forfeiture or DUI conviction.

10. If driver has been arrested and refuses the breath or blood test (Birchfield v. North Dakota, 136 S. Ct. 2160 (2016)):  

a. Refusal of breath:  1st refusal civil offense.  Subsequent refusals within 10 years criminal offense - Class 1 misdemeanor.

b.  Refusal of blood:  Always a civil offense.

c. Advise of implied consent rights

d. Arresting officer shall advise DUI arrestee from a form provided by the Office of the Executive Secretary of the Supreme Court and that the arresting officer shall acknowledge on such form that he has read the form to the arrestee.

e. Complete documentation for administrative license suspension.

f. Take the arrestee to the magistrate. Give the magistrate the executed advisement form to attach to the warrant or summons.

e. Repeal.  If the driver has been taken to a medical facility for treatment or evaluation of his medical condition and refuses to take a blood or breath test, the arresting officer may issue a summons for the violation while on the premises of the facility.

11. Prepare field notes for prosecution (for DUID case submit a copy to the forensic laboratory):

a. Precise reason for stop

b. Weather and road conditions

c. Suspect’s physical appearance and demeanor

d. Suspect’s performance of field sobriety test (if done)

e. Exact times of all pertinent events (stop, arrest, test)

12. Receive instruction on a standardized field sobriety test.

Instructors Note:  Advise trainees that they will need to identify department policy related to obtaining a search warrant when a blood or breath test is refused.

Performance Outcome 4.47.

Conduct a traffic checking detail.

Training Objectives Related to 4.47.

1. Given a written or practical exercise, identify steps to conduct and properly document a traffic checking detail according to legal requirements.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.47.1. Identify legal requirements

4.47.2. Identify procedures to set up and conduct a traffic checking detail

4.47.3. Record results in a standard report

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Legal requirements for traffic checking (Lowe v. Commonwealth, 230 Va. 346, 337 S.E. 2d 273 (1985))

2. Procedures to set up and conduct a traffic checking detail

3. Recording results in a standard report

Instructor Note: Advise trainees that they will need to identify department policy related to traffic checking details as part of their department training.

Performance Outcome 4.48.

Investigate general traffic accidents and those involving personal injury, fatality, or vehicular assault and inspect vehicles involved to assess damage, determine cause, and test operability of vehicle(s).

Training Objectives Related to 4.48.

1. Given a practical exercise simulating a traffic accident involving personal injury, fatality, or vehicular assault, investigate to determine cause, inspect vehicle(s) to assess damage, and test operability of vehicle(s).

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.48.1. Evaluate scene and response needed:

4.48.1.1. Observe vehicle placards for possible hazardous materials exposure

4.48.1.2. Identify and request any other emergency assistance needed appropriate to accident, i.e., hazmat

4.48.1.3. Render first aid to victims until relieved

4.48.1.4. Coordinate other responding units to set up traffic control

4.48.2. Protect accident scene by controlling access

4.48.3. Demonstrate procedures for general accident investigation:

4.48.3.1. Interview and subpoena witnesses

4.48.3.2. Obtain statements from drivers and identification of vehicle owner using correct communications procedure

4.48.3.3. Walk the scene to determine layout

4.48.3.4. Search for, collect and preserve physical evidence

4.48.3.4.1. Recognize physical evidence that is in danger due to weather conditions, too many people roaming scene, or other factors

4.48.3.4.2. Identify methods to protect physical evidence under various circumstances

4.48.3.4.2.1. Precipitation

4.48.3.4.2.2. People/animals in area

4.48.3.4.2.3. Fire

4.48.3.4.3. Identify methods to collect, preserve, and maintain chain of evidence from an accident

4.48.3.4.4. Use basic math functions related to gathering evidence where needed

4.48.3.5. Prepare field sketch and document damage

4.48.3.6. Complete traffic accident (FR 300) and Driver Information Exchange Forms

4.48.3.7. Determine violations and charges and accurately complete and deliver summons charging the appropriate parties with reference to appropriate Code section(s)

4.48.3.8. Assess damage and test operability of vehicle(s)

4.48.3.9. Remove debris from accident scene to ensure safe and efficient vehicular passage or call for assistance to remove debris

4.48.4. Demonstrate procedures unique to conducting an investigation of accidents involving injuries or fatalities, or vehicular assault:

4.48.4.1.  Interviews with victim prior to death

4.48.4.2. Dying declaration elements

4.48.4.3. Rescue personnel interviews

4.48.4.4. Fire department personnel interviews

4.48.4.5. Describe items to be photographed with and without cars in place

4.48.4.5.1. All vehicle damage

4.48.4.5.2.  All evidentiary marks on pavement and other fixed objects

4.48.4.5.3. Debris in road from the point of impact

4.48.4.5.4. Long distance photograph

4.48.4.5.5. License plates and other vehicle identification

4.48.4.5.6. Bodies:

4.48.4.5.6.1. Close-up identification

4.48.4.5.6.2. Long view

4.48.4.5.6.3. Body in respect to vehicle/scene.

4.48.4.5.7. Presence/non-presence or damaged traffic control devices

4.48.4.5.8. Any evidence on or about vehicles or roadways that could have contributed to the accident or help determine vehicular assault:

4.48.4.5.8.1. Forensics related to the vehicle

4.48.4.5.8.2. Type and style (single or multiple)

4.48.4.5.8.3. One or more than one perpetrator indicated

4.48.4.5.9. Close-ups where necessary to detail

4.48.4.5.10. Viewpoint from each driver

4.48.4.5.11. Obstructions to visibility at approach to scene

4.48.4.6. Establish and document measurable reference points at scene

4.48.4.7. Measure observable tire marks of involved vehicles

4.48.4.8. Prepare a detailed field diagram

4.48.4.9. Complete and submit required fatal accident state report forms

4.48.4.10. Identify any special requirements related to investigating traffic accidents involving law enforcement vehicles

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Evaluate scene and response needed:

a. Observe vehicle placards for possible hazardous materials exposure

b. Identify and request any other emergency assistance needed appropriate to accident, i.e., hazmat:

1. Complete Department of Emergency Services Hazardous Materials Training -- Awareness Level

c. Render first aid to victims until relieved

d. Coordinate other responding units to set up traffic control

2. Protect accident scene by controlling access:

a. Identify effective traffic flow pattern around accident scene

b. Identify placement of officer(s)

c. Identify barriers needed to protect evidence

d. Identify when road should be closed

3. Demonstrate procedures for general accident investigation:

a. Interview and subpoena witnesses

b. Obtain statements from drivers and identification of vehicle owner using correct communications procedure

c. Walk the scene to determine layout

d. Search for, collect and preserve physical evidence:

1. Recognize physical evidence that is in danger due to weather conditions, too many people roaming scene, or other factors

2. Identify methods to protect physical evidence under various circumstances

a. Precipitation

b. People/animals in area

d. Fire

3. Identify methods to collect, preserve, and maintain chain of evidence from an accident

4. Use basic math functions related to gathering evidence where needed

e. Prepare field sketch and document damage:

1. Vehicles (numbers, types, points of impact)

2. People

3. Obstacles

4. Correct road names, intersections, landmarks

5. Take measurements taken so that a scale diagram may be created at a later time

f. Complete traffic accident and Driver Information Exchange Forms:

1. State requirements for reporting accident damage

2. Various types of damage and costs associated with each

g. Determine violations and charges and accurately complete and deliver summons charging the appropriate parties with reference to appropriate Code section(s).

h. Assess damage and test operability of vehicle(s):

1. Previous damage(s) from current damage

2. Defect(s) of vehicle(s)

3. Driver(s) previous conditions

4. Driver(s) actions

5. Operable vehicle

6. Inoperable vehicle

i. Remove debris from accident scene to ensure safe and efficient vehicular passage or call for assistance to remove debris

j. Identify any special requirements related to investigating traffic accidents involving law enforcement vehicles

4. Demonstrate procedures unique to conducting an investigation of accidents involving injuries or fatalities:

a. Describe items to be photographed with and without cars in place:

1. All vehicle damage

2. All evidentiary marks on pavement and other fixed objects

3. Debris in road from the point of impact

4. Long distance photograph

5. License plates and other vehicle identification

6. Bodies:

a. Close-up identification

b. Long view

c. Body in respect to vehicle/scene.

7. Presence/non-presence or damaged traffic control devices

8. Any evidence on or about vehicles or roadways that could have contributed to the accident or help determine vehicular assault:

a. Forensics related to the vehicle

b. Type and style (single or multiple)

c. One or more than one perpetrator indicated

9. Close-ups where necessary to detail

10. Viewpoint from each driver

11. Obstructions to visibility at approach to scene

b. Establish and document measurable reference points at scene.

c. Measure observable tire marks of involved vehicles.

d. Prepare a detailed field diagram.

e. Complete and submit required fatal accident state report forms.

Performance Outcome 4.49.

Respond to general information questions from public.

Training Objectives Related to 4.49.

1. Given a written, audio-visual, or practical exercise, identify methods and approaches that respond to general information questions from the public.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.49.1. Identify the basic concepts of public service:

4.49.1.1. Service orientation

4.49.1.2. Partnerships within a community

4.49.1.3. Resource and referral access through law enforcement

4.49.2. Identify ways an officer can individually contribute to promoting success in a public service effort.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Identify the basic concepts of public service:

a. Service orientation

b. Partnerships within a community

c. Resource and referral access through law enforcement

2. Identify ways an officer can individually contribute to promoting success in a public service effort.

Performance Outcome 4.50.

Advise residents/business people about ways to secure their homes/facilities.

Training Objectives Related to 4.50.

1. Given a written, audio-visual, or practical exercise, identify topics to discuss with residents/business people about ways to secure their facilities.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.50.1. Doors

4.50.2. Windows

4.50.3. Shrubbery

4.50.4. Locks

4.50.5. Lights

4.50.6. Sliding glass

4.50.7. Vents

4.50.8. Dropped ceilings

4.50.9. Alarms

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

Ways to properly secure the following:

1. Doors

2. Windows

3. Shrubbery

4. Locks

5. Lights

6. Sliding glass

7. Vents

8. Dropped ceilings

9. Alarms

Performance Outcome 4.51.

Identify ways to assist in preventing crime.

Training Objectives Related to 4.51.

1. Given a written, audio-visual, or practical exercise, identify structured problem solving methods to identify and assist in preventing causes of crime, e.g., street lights, traffic patterns, lack of recreation, etc.,

Criteria: The student shall be tested on the following:

4.51.1. Identify the crime(s) occurring in an area

4.51.2. Identify root cause(s)

4.51.3. Identify local resources

4.51.4. Identify possible solution(s)

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Use of structured problem solving technique(s)

2. Identification of the crime(s) occurring in an area

3. Identification of the root cause(s)

4. Identification of possible resources

5. Identification of possible solution(s)

6. How to initiate action using

a. Police

b. Parks & recreation

c. Zoning

d. Commissioner of revenue

e. Roads and grounds repair

f. Highway signs

g. Others as may be identified

7. Crime Prevention through Environmental Design program

8. Crime Triangle Analysis

a. Desire

b. Ability

c. Opportunity

Performance Outcome 4.52.

Conduct vehicle and foot patrol.

Training Objectives Related to 4.52.

1. Identify patterns of conducting vehicle patrols.

2. Identify patterns of conducting foot patrols.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.52.1. Identify at least three patterns of conducting vehicle patrols.

4.52.2. Identify at least three patterns for conducting foot patrol in residential and business areas.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Reasons that patrol assists in crime prevention and detection

2. Vehicle patrol patterns

3. Foot patrol patterns for residential and business areas.

4. Specialized patrol methods and applications for these:

a. Bicycle

b. Motorcycle

c. Airplane/helicopter

d. Boats

Performance Outcome 4.53.

Determine need for specialized assistance at a crime scene.

Training Objectives Related to 4.53.

1. Given a written, audio-visual, or practical exercise, identify the factors the first responding officer should consider before requesting specialized assistance at a crime scene.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.53.1. Availability of resources

4.53.2. Nature of the crime

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Availability of resources

2. Nature of the crime:

a. Type

1. Police dog (make sure conditions are still good for a dog to work; help identify a starting point if possible)

2. Forensic specialist:

a. Lack of visible evidence in any crime

b. More than just a few items of evidence

3. Expert in that type of crime:

a. Monetary amount in a burglary

b. Monetary crimes

c. Computer crimes

d. Art, antiques, gems, etc.

e. Others as may be identified

b. Scene integrity

c. Safety considerations

Performance Outcome 4.54.

Administer cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and basic first aid.

Training Objectives Related to 4.54.

1. Successfully complete an approved course for cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR).

2. Successfully complete an approved course for basic first aid.

3. Demonstrate ability to assist a person to prevent falling, move the person to a place of safety and support the person to a safe position.

4. Successfully complete an approved course for using an automatic external defibrillator (AED).

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.54.1. Testing provided by approved CPR course provider.

4.54.2. Testing provided by approved basic first aid provider.

4.54.3. Assisting a person to prevent falling, move the person to a place of safety if needed, and support the person to a safe position.

4.54.4. Testing provided by an approved automatic external defibrillator (AED) course provider.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. An approved course for cardio-pulmonary resuscitation.

2. An approved course for basic first aid.

3. Assist a person to prevent falling, move the person to a place of safety and support the person to a safe position:

a. Protecting head and shoulders of person to the extent possible

b. Use of upper body strength

c. Use of base strength (hip and legs)

d. Use of torso/trunk strength (back and abdomen)

4. An approved course for using an automatic external defibrillator (AED).

5. Use of bio-hazard protections.

Instructor Note: Approving entities for First Aid/CPR instruction include the American Heart Association, American Red Cross, Virginia Department of Health, National Safety Council, American Safety & Health Institute, or a program approved by the Operational Medical Director of a local Emergency Medical Services (EMS) provider.

Performance Outcome 4.55.

Assist with an emergency delivery of a baby.

Training Objectives Related to 4.55.

1. After receiving video instruction, identify basic steps for emergency delivery of a baby given a written exam covering the following:

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.55.1. Positioning the mother for delivery considering the circumstances creating the emergency.

4.55.2. Checking for and assisting the baby from the birth canal:

4.55.2.1. Support head and neck

4.55.2.2 Check for breathing and assist if necessary

4.55.3. Protect the baby from the elements:

4.55.3.1. Importance of wrapping the baby and keeping the baby warm

4.55.3.2. Placement on mother

4.55.4. Tying off the cord (cutting the cord can usually wait for medical assistance)

4.55.5. Ejection of placenta

4.55.6. Preparing mother and baby for transport to hospital

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Position the mother for delivery considering the circumstances creating the emergency.

2. Check for and assisting the baby from the birth canal:

a. Support head and neck

b. Check for breathing and assist if necessary

3. Protect the baby from the elements:

a. Importance of wrapping the baby and keeping the baby warm

b. Placement on mother

4. Tie off the cord (cutting the cord can usually wait for medical assistance)

5. Ejection of placenta

6. Prepare mother and baby for transport to hospital

7. Use personal protective equipment.

Performance Outcome 4.56.

Use protective gear to prevent contact with infectious diseases.

Training Objectives Related to 4.56.

1. Given a practical exercise for criteria 1 and 2, identify protective gear to use to prevent contact with infectious diseases.

2. Given a written or practical exercise for criteria 3, provide notice to persons exposed to blood or body fluids while assisting an officer that they have a right to the test results for HIV or hepatitis.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.56.1. Complete the Virginia Occupational Safety and Health training related to exposure to blood borne pathogens.

4.56.2. Demonstrate use of protective gear for air borne pathogens.

4.56.3. Notify persons exposed to blood or body fluids while assisting an officer that they have a right to the test results for HIV or hepatitis.

4.56.4 Identify procedure for an officer to follow to obtain a blood sample from an individual related to a blood exposure.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Complete the Virginia Occupational Safety and Health training related to exposure to blood borne pathogens.

2. Demonstrate use of protective gear for air borne pathogens.

3. Notify persons exposed to blood or body fluids while assisting an officer that they have a right to the test results for HIV or hepatitis. (§32.1-45.1)

4. Identify procedure for an officer to follow to obtain a blood sample from an individual related to a blood exposure.

Performance Outcome 4.57.

Identify applicable laws, definitions and background information related to terrorism.

Training Objectives Related to 4.57.

1. Given a written exercise, define terrorism according to Title 18 U.S.C and applicable laws in the Code of Virginia.

2. Given a written or practical exercise, identify the differences between extremist beliefs, terrorist activity, and acts/speech protected by the First Amendment.

3. Given a written or practical exercise identify the distinctions between and individual acting alone, domestic and international terrorist organizations and their supporters:

a. Background information

1. International

2. Domestic (Intra-national)

b. Strategies/current trends

1. Propaganda

2. Internet resources

3. Complex coordinated attacks intended to overwhelm the local jurisdiction and initiate a regional /statewide response

a. Three or more attackers

b. Simultaneous attack of two or more sites

4. Other as identified

c. Primary objectives

d. Potential targets 

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.57.1. Define terrorism according to Title 18 U.S.C and applicable laws in the Code of Virginia.

4.57.2. Identify the difference between extremist beliefs, terrorist activity, and acts/speech protected by the First Amendment

4.57.3. Identify the distinctions between and individual acting alone, domestic and international terrorist organizations and their supporters:

4.57.3.1. Extreme political groups (Sovereign Citizens)

4.57.3.2. Race-based hate groups (White Supremacist, Black Separatists)

4.57.3.3. Religious-based hate groups (Christian Identity, Westboro Baptist Church)

4.57.3.4. Special interest groups (anti-abortion, animal rights)

4.57.3.5. Foreign Terrorist Organizations (al Qaeda, ISIS, Boko Haram)

4.57.3.6. Identify the primary objectives of terrorists:

4.57.3.6.1. Recognition

4.57.3.6.2. Coercion

4.57.3.6.3. Intimidation

4.57.3.6.4. Provocation

4.57.3.6.5. Insurgency Support

4.57.3.7. Potential targets

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Define terrorism according to Title 18 U.S.C and applicable laws in the Code of Virginia.

2. Identify the difference between extremist beliefs and terrorist activity acts/speech protected by the First Amendment (i.e. subject has radical beliefs which are not a violation of law until they act upon them)

a. Identify the radicalization process and the behavioral factors influencing the process

b. Terrorist recruitment cycle and socialization activities

3. Identify the distinctions between and individual acting alone, domestic and international terrorist organizations and their supporters:

a. Extreme political groups (Sovereign Citizens)

b. Race-based hate groups (White Supremacist, Black Separatists) Religious-based hate groups Christian Identity, Westboro Baptist Church)

c. Special interest groups (anti-abortion, animal rights)

d. Foreign Terrorist Organizations (al Qaeda, ISIS, Boko Haram)

4. Identify types of organizations and individuals engaging in acts of terrorism.

a. Background information

1. International

2.  Domestic (Intra-national)

b. Strategies/current trends

1.  Propaganda

2.  Internet resources

3. Complex coordinated attacks intended to overwhelm the local jurisdiction and initiate a regional /statewide response

a. Three or more attackers

b. Simultaneous attack of two or more sites

c. Primary objectives

d. Potential targets

 

Performance Outcome 4.58.

Identify behavior(s) and indicators of suspicious non-criminal and criminal activity that may alert law enforcement to acts of terrorism and identify resources capable of providing assistance.

Training Objectives Related to 4.58.

1. Given a written or practical exercise, identify behavior(s) and indicators of suspicious noncriminal and criminal terrorist activity.

2. Given a written or practical exercise identify federal, state, and local resources.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.58.1. Identify behaviors and indicators of suspicious non-criminal and criminal activities.

4.58.2. Identify federal, state, and local resources.

4.58.2.1. Federal

4.58.2.1.1. Joint Terrorism Task Force

4.58.2.1.2. National Joint Terrorism Task Force

4.58.2.2. State

4.58.2.3. Local

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Identify behavior(s) and indicators

a. Suspicious non-criminal

b. Criminal

2. Identify federal, state, and local resources.

a. Federal

1. Joint Terrorism Task Force

2.  National Joint Terrorism Task Force

b. State

c. Local 

 

Performance Outcome 4.59.

Identify common precursors associated with the production of hazardous devices accessible through legal and illegal means.

Training Objective Related to 4.59.

1. Given a written or practical exercise, identify common precursors associated with the production of hazardous devices and related equipment using legal and illegal resources:

a. Chemical agents

b. Biological agents

c.Radiological devices

d. Explosive devices

e. Weapons of mass destruction

2. Given a written or practical exercise, identify the responsibilities of the first officer on the scene of an act of terrorism.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.59.1. Identify common precursors associated with the production of hazardous devices and related equipment using legal and illegal resources:

4.59.1.1. Chemical agents

4.59.1.2. Biological agents

4.59.1.3. Radiological devices

4.59.1.4. Explosive devices

4.59.1.5. Weapons of mass destruction

4.59.2. Recognize and evaluate the situation.

4.59.3. Avoid and isolate the area.

4.59.4. Notify appropriate agencies and request assistance.

4.59.5. If and when determined, proceed to evacuate/shelter in place.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Identify common precursors associated with the production of hazardous devices and related equipment using legal and illegal resources:

a. Chemical agents

b. Biological agents

c. Radiological devices

d. Explosive devices

e. Weapons of mass destruction

2. Recognize and evaluate the situation.

3. Avoid and isolate the area.

4. Notify appropriate agencies and request assistance.

5. If and when determined, proceed to evacuate/shelter in place.

Performance Outcome 4.60.

Identify the impact of social media on today’s terrorism activities.

Training Objective Related to 4.60.

1. Given a written or practical exercise, identify the impact various forms of social media have on today’s terrorist activity.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

4.60.1 Identify the impact of social media on terrorist activities.

4.60.1.1. Monitor social media during the event, as applicable

4.60.1.2. Utilizing social media for distribution of information

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Identify the impact of social media on terrorist activities.

a. Monitor social media during the event, as applicable

b. Utilizing social media for distribution of information

bscharf

Investigations

Investigations

Performance Outcome 5.1.

Analyze and compare incidents of criminal behavior relating to modus operandi.

Training Objectives Relating to 5.1.

1. Given a written exercise, identify the factors to consider in analyzing and comparing criminal behavior to establish a modus operandi (m.o.) as a first responder.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

5.1.1. Define modus operandi (“m.o.”) and how it is used.

5.1.2. Identify three indicators to help establish m.o.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Define modus operandi (“m.o.”) and how it is used.

2. Identify procedures to provide information to investigators as part of a preliminary report.

3. Identify information to provide:

a. Type of weapon

b. Condition of the victim(s)

c. Kind of injuries

d. Statement(s) given by victim

e. Previous reports

f. Target

g. Date/Time

h. Location

i. Talk with law enforcement personnel for additional information

j. Other suggestions as may be identified.

Performance Outcome 5.2.

Conduct a field suspect identification (“show-up”).

Training Objectives Relating to 5.2.

1. Given a written exercise, identify the factors to consider in conducting a field suspect identification (“show-up”) as a first responder.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

5.2.1. Define a field suspect identification (“show-up”).

5.2.2. Identify three evidentiary elements to be considered when conducting a “showup.”

5.2.3. List procedures for conducting a field suspect identification (“show-up”).

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Define a field suspect identification (“show-up”) as the procedure to take the victim or witness to the location where the suspect may be for purpose of identification.

2. Identify evidentiary elements to be considered when conducting a “show-up.”

a. The opportunity of the witness to view the criminal at the time of the crime

b. The witness’ degree of attention

c. The accuracy of the witness’ prior description of the criminal

d. The level of certainty demonstrated by the witness at the confrontation

e. The length of time between the crime and the confrontation

f. The length of time related to distance from the crime scene

g. Constitutional limitations

h. Physical and mental capacity of witnesses

3. List procedures for conducting a field suspect identification (“show-up”).

a. Determine ability of victim or witness to visually make an identification from a vehicle

b. Identify safety concerns related to taking the victim or witness to the location of the suspect

c. Call for assistance to be ready to make the arrest should a positive identification be made

d. Take the victim or witness to the location of the suspect; ask only if he or she can identify the person who committed the crime.

Performance Outcome 5.3.

Communicate with law enforcement personnel within the agency or with other agencies to exchange information in order to obtain or provide assistance in an investigation.

Training Objectives Related to 5.3.

1. Given a written exercise, identify the types of information and sources for obtaining information useful to any agency conducting an investigation.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

5.3.1. Identify three types of information available within your agency or with other agencies to obtain or to provide in order to render assistance in an investigation.

5.3.1.1. Descriptive information about a suspect

5.3.1.2. Information about other crimes suspect may have committed

5.3.1.3. Knowledge of possible whereabouts of suspect

5.3.1.4. Family, friends, associates, co-workers of suspect

5.3.1.5. Behavior patterns of suspect

5.3.1.6. Occupation

5.3.1.7. Modus operandi (cross reference to 5.1.)

5.3.1.8. Peculiarities of suspect

5.3.1.9. Others as may be identified.

5.3.2. Identify three various sources that may be used to obtain information relevant to an investigation.

5.3.2.1. National Crime Information Network (NCIC)

5.3.2.2. Virginia Crime Information Network (VCIN)

5.3.2.3. Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV)

5.3.2.4. Probation and Parole

5.3.2.5. Criminal Histories

5.3.2.6. Arrest Records

5.3.2.7. Retail Merchant Credit Checks

5.3.2.8. Utilities Inquiries

5.3.2.9. Public Records

5.3.2.10. U.S. Postal Service

5.3.2.11. Military Records

5.3.2.12. Other Law Enforcement Agencies

5.3.2.13. Financial Institutions

5.3.2.14. Crime Analysis Information Exchanges

5.3.2.15. Automatic Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS)

5.3.2.16. Surveillance

5.3.2.17. Health care records as noted in §32.1-127.1:03.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Types of information available within your agency or with other agencies to obtain or to provide in order to render assistance in an investigation.

a. Descriptive information about a suspect

b. Information about other crimes suspect may have committed

c. Knowledge of possible whereabouts of suspect

d. Family, friends, associates, co-workers of suspect

e. Behavior patterns of suspect

f. Occupation

g. Modus operandi (cross reference to 5.1.)

h. Peculiarities of suspect

i. Others as may be identified.

2. Various sources that may be used to obtain information relevant to an investigation.

a. National Crime Information Network (NCIC)

b. Virginia Crime Information Network (VCIN)

c. Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV)

d. Probation and Parole

e. Criminal Histories

f. Arrest Records

g. Retail Merchant Credit Checks

h. Utilities Inquiries

i. Public Records

j. U.S. Postal Service

k. Military Records

l. Other Law Enforcement Agencies

m. Financial Institutions

n. Crime Analysis Information Exchanges

o. Automatic Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS)

p. Surveillance

q. Health care records as noted in §32.1-127.1:03.

Performance Outcome 5.4.

Conduct a neighborhood canvas to collect crime related information.

Training Objectives Relating to 5.4.

1. Given a written exercise, identify the procedure to conduct a neighborhood canvas.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

5.4.1. Identify the scope of the area to canvas.

5.4.2. Canvas the neighborhood on the same day of the week and time of day/night that the crime was committed.

5.4.3. Document every contact or attempted contact for every house, business, and person in the area.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Identify the scope of the area to canvas.

2. Canvas the neighborhood on the same day of the week and time of day/night that the crime was committed.

3. Document every contact or attempted contact for every house, business, and person in the area.

4. Identify how all collected canvas information can be used to help solve a crime.

5. Identify how information may be organized to help solve a crime.

6. Plan and coordinate information to determine:

a. Who

b. What

c. Where

d. When

e. Why

f. How

7. Contact crime prevention personnel and intelligence officers for possible relevant information in case any worked in the area of the crime.

8. Canvas the neighborhood at different times of day or night.

9. Document the contact of every house and person in an area.

Performance Outcome 5.5.

Locate crime witness(es) and suspects and eliminate suspects to a crime.

Training Objectives Relating to 5.5.

1. Given a written exercise, identify the resources used to locate witnesses or suspects to a crime and/or eliminate suspects.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

5.5.1. Identify three resources to locate witnesses or suspects.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

Resources to locate witnesses or suspects:

1. Neighborhood canvas

2. Phone records/911 tapes

3. Answering machine messages/caller identification

4. Family, friends, co-workers

5. If crime was committed around time of mail delivery, check with letter carriers, cable company workers

6. Children in neighborhood

7. Drivers of regular routes in a specific area

8. Neighborhood watch

9. Taxi companies

10. Store surveillance

11. Records and pictures that may help identify or eliminate suspects

12. Share information with other resources that may provide assistance:

a. Other agencies

b. News media

c. Crime Stoppers

d. Informants

e. Officers serving that patrol area

f. Wanted posters

g. Virginia Association of Law Enforcement Intelligence Documentation (VALID) or other similar networks of professionals

h. Neighborhood watch

i. Family

j. Victims

k. Witnesses

l. Others as may be identified.

13. When located, use appropriate method to subpoena to court.

Performance Outcome 5.6.

Investigate cases of child abuse and neglect or elder abuse and neglect.

Training Objectives Relating to 5.6.

1. Identify the duties of the first responding officer to investigate cases of child abuse and neglect or elder abuse and neglect and notify Department of Social Services when appropriate.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

5.6.1. Code of Virginia requirements for reporting suspected child abuse or neglect.

5.6.2. Identify three duties of first responding officer for investigating cases of child abuse or neglect.

5.6.2.1. Ensure the safety of the child or elder person and seek medical attention if needed.

5.6.2.2. Determine if a crime has been committed.

5.6.2.3. Make proper notifications.

5.6.3. Identify potential warning signs of child abuse or neglect.

5.6.4. Identify people who may provide relevant information.

5.6.5. Identify Code of Virginia requirements for reporting suspected elder abuse or neglect.

5.6.6. Identify three potential warning signs of elder abuse or neglect.

5.6.6.1. Mental state of victim

5.6.6.2. Reports of frequent hunger

5.6.6.3. Inappropriate clothing for weather

5.6.6.4. Frequent/suspicious bruising or injuries; past signs of abuse/neglect

5.6.6.5. Possible sexual assault

5.6.6.6. Witness(es) to abuse or neglect

5.6.6.7. Lack of caretaker for elder person.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Code of Virginia requirements for reporting suspected child abuse or neglect (§63.2-1509).

2. Identify three duties of first responding officer for investigating cases of child or elder abuse or neglect.

a. Ensure the safety of the child or elder person and seek medical attention if needed.

b. Determine if a crime has been committed.

c. Make proper notifications.

3. Identify potential warning signs of child abuse or neglect.

a. Frequent hunger

b. Inappropriate clothing for weather

c. Frequent/suspicious bruising or injuries

d. Inappropriate sexual behavior

e. Lack of adult supervision for child frequently getting into mischief

f. Drug/alcohol use

g. Runaways/incorrigibles

h. Others as may be identified.

4. Identify people who may provide relevant information.

a. Victim child (interview separately)

b. Doctors/hospital personnel

c. Child protective services (obtain psychiatric evaluation)

d. School personnel

e. Neighbors

f. Other children

g. Interview parents separately (check custody arrangements and interview all parties with access to the child).

5. Identify Code of Virginia requirements for reporting suspected elder abuse or neglect (§ 63.2-1606).

6. Identify three potential warning signs of elder abuse or neglect.

a. Mental state of victim

b. Reports of frequent hunger

c. Inappropriate clothing for weather

d. Frequent/suspicious bruising or injuries; past signs of abuse/neglect

e. Possible sexual assault

f. Witness(es) to abuse or neglect

g. Lack of caretaker for elder person.

Performance Outcome 5.7.

Conduct preliminary investigation of events related to a death, and follow-up investigation when assigned. Review with the medical examiner the circumstances related to a death.

Training Objectives Relating to 5.7.

Given a written or practical exercise:

1. Identify or demonstrate the duties of the first responding officer at the scene a death.

2. Identify the elements to cover in a review with the medical examiner regarding the circumstances of a death.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

First responder duties:

5.7.1. Make a preliminary determination of a death to be caused from natural or unnatural causes.

5.7.2. Determine if a suspect may still be on the premises.

5.7.3. Protect the crime scene.

5.7.4. Make proper notifications.

5.7.5. Collect and maintain chain of evidence (when assigned); assist as needed and record your activities.

5.7.6. Record findings on standard report form.

5.7.7. Locate witnesses and record statements.

For review with the medical examiner:

5.7.8. Provide all details observed at scene.

5.7.9. Information related to the manner of death.

5.7.10. Information related to the health of the victim.

5.7.11. Relevant medical information received from victim’s doctor (some will sign death certificate).

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

For first responder duties:

1. Make a preliminary determination of a death to be caused from natural or unnatural causes (if not clearly related to natural causes, all deaths are to be investigated as homicides until determined otherwise).

2. Determine if a suspect may still be on the premises.

3. Protect the crime scene.

4. Make proper notifications.

5. Collect and maintain chain of evidence (when assigned); assist as needed and record your activities.

6. Record findings on standard report form.

a. Position of body

b. Position of weapon

c. Type of wound

d. Location of wound

e. Ligature marks

f. Post mortem signs

g. Presence of note

h. Dying declaration elements.

7. Locate witnesses and record statements.

8. Identify factors to consider in relationship to a follow-up and continuing investigation of a homicide (when assigned).

a. Type and style of homicide (single or multiple)

b. One or more than one perpetrator indicated

c. Method of death (using a blunt object, drowning, gunshot, etc.)

d. Preliminary witness interviews

e. Interviews with victim prior to death

f. Dying declaration elements

g. Rescue personnel interviews

h. Fire department personnel interviews

i. Medical examiner information re: manner & cause of death

j. Victimology

k. Motive (if identified)

l. Opportunity

m. Ability

n. Time (season, day, night).

9. Identify factors to consider in relationship to determining death by suicide.

a. Define suicide

b. Medical examiner information re: manner and cause of death

c. Autopsy

d. Witness interview(s) (if any available)

e. Family member interview(s)

f. Possible motivation

g. Analysis of victim’s mental and physical health at time of death

h. Document activities accurately

i. Crime scene search considerations (was suicide possible based on physical evidence)

j. Steps of investigation that lead to a determination of suicide

1. Conduct the steps of a death investigation

2. If homicide or natural cause are eliminated as the cause of death, then suicide is the finding.

For review with the medical examiner:

1. Provide all details observed at scene.

2. Information related to the manner of death.

3. Information related to the health of the victim.

4. Relevant medical information received from victim’s doctor (some will sign death certificate).

Performance Outcome 5.8.

Conduct preliminary investigation of a rape or sexual offense, and follow-up investigation when assigned.

Training Objectives Related to 5.8.

1. Given a written or practical exercise, identify or demonstrate the duties of the first responding officer investigating a rape or sexual offense.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

5.8.1. Determine if the crime is in progress, if the suspect is still on the premises, or how much time has elapsed since the rape.

5.8.2. Calm the victim and seek appropriate medical attention.

5.8.3. Identify and separate witnesses.

5.8.4. Secure the crime scene and protect evidence.

5.8.5. Notify the appropriate investigating agency.

5.8.6. Provide referrals to services that assist victims of sex crimes.

5.8.7. Identify the evidentiary value of a PERK (Physical Evidence Recovery Kit).

5.8.8. Complete necessary reports.

5.8.9. Identify procedures to follow should a polygraph or similar truth-telling examination be requested of a victim of a sex offense (§19.2-9.1).

5.8.10. Provide the appropriate notifications in accordance with  §19.2-11.11.  

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Determine if the crime is in progress, if the suspect is still on the premises, or how much time has elapsed since the rape.

2. Calm the victim and seek appropriate medical attention.

a. Arrange for PERK (Physical Evidence Recovery Kit) administration

3. Identify and separate witnesses.

4. Secure the crime scene and protect evidence.

5. Notify the appropriate investigating agency

6. Provide referrals to services that assist victims of sex crimes.

7. Identify the evidentiary value of a PERK (Physical Evidence Recovery Kit).

8. Complete necessary reports.

9. Identify procedures to follow should a polygraph or similar truth-telling examination be requested of a victim of a sex offense. (§19.2-9.1).

10. Provide the appropriate notifications in accordance with  §19.2-11.11.

Performance Outcome 5.9.

Conduct preliminary investigation of events related to a robbery.

Training Objectives Relating to 5.9.

1. Given a written or practical exercise, identify or demonstrate the duties of the first responding officer to investigate events relating to a robbery.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

5.9.1. Check for injury/death.

5.9.2. Notify proper authorities.

5.9.3. Protect the crime scene according to requirements of the nature of the crime.

5.9.4. Locate witnesses.

5.9.5. Assist as needed on scene.

5.9.6. Check with supervisor to determine if follow-up is needed.

5.9.7. Complete necessary reports.

5.9.8. Determine if the crime is in progress, if the suspect is still on the premises, or how much time has elapsed since the crime.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Check for injury/death.

2. Notify proper authorities.

3. Protect the crime scene according to requirements of the nature of the crime.

4. Locate witnesses.

5. Assist as needed on scene.

6. Check with supervisor to determine if follow-up is needed.

7. Complete necessary reports.

8. Determine if the crime is in progress, if the suspect is still on the premises, or how much time has elapsed since the crime.

Performance Outcome 5.10.

Conduct a preliminary investigation of a burglary, and follow-up investigation when assigned.

Training Objectives Relating to 5.10.

1. Given a written or practical exercise, identify or demonstrate the duties of the first responding officer to investigate events relating to a burglary.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

5.10.1. Check for injury/death.

5.10.2. Notify proper authorities.

5.10.3. Locate point of entry/exit.

5.10.4. Protect the crime scene according to requirements of the nature of the crime.

5.10.5. Locate witnesses.

5.10.6. Assist as needed on scene.

5.10.7. Check with supervisor to determine if follow-up is needed.

5.10.8. Complete necessary reports.

5.10.9. Determine if the crime is in progress, if the suspect is still on the premises, or how much time has elapsed since the crime.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Check for injury/death.

2. Notify proper authorities.

3. Locate point of entry/exit.

4. Protect the crime scene according to requirements of the nature of the crime.

5. Locate witnesses.

6. Assist as needed on scene.

7. Check with supervisor to determine if follow-up is needed.

8. Complete necessary reports.

9. Determine if the crime is in progress, if the suspect is still on the premises, or how much time has elapsed since the crime.

Performance Outcome 5.11.

Conduct a preliminary investigation of an assault, and follow-up investigation when assigned.

Training Objectives Relating to 5.11.

1. Given a written or practical exercise, identify or demonstrate the duties of the first responding officer to investigate events relating to an assault.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

5.11.1. Check for injury/death.

5.11.2. Notify proper authorities.

5.11.3. Protect the crime scene according to requirements of the nature of the crime.

5.11.4. Locate witnesses.

5.11.5. Assist as needed on scene.

5.11.6. Check with supervisor to determine if follow-up is needed.

5.11.7. Complete necessary reports.

5.11.8. Determine if the crime is in progress, if the suspect is still on the premises, or how much time has elapsed since the crime.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Check for injury/death.

2. Notify proper authorities.

3. Protect the crime scene according to requirements of the nature of the crime.

4. Locate witnesses.

5. Assist as needed on scene.

6. Check with supervisor to determine if follow-up is needed.

7. Complete necessary reports.

8. Determine if the crime is in progress, if the suspect is still on the premises, or how much time has elapsed since the crime.

Performance Outcome 5.12.

1. Conduct a preliminary investigation of a larceny, and follow-up investigation when assigned.

2. Estimate and record the value of stolen or recovered goods. Conduct an investigation to locate, identify, and return stolen property.

Training Objectives Relating to 5.12.

Given a written or practical exercise:

1. Identify or demonstrate the duties of the first responding officer to investigate events relating to a larceny.

2. Identify sources which can be utilized to assist in estimating and recording the value of stolen or recovered goods.

3. Identify methods to determine if property is stolen and identifiers that help to trace stolen property.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

For first responder duties:

5.12.1. Check for injury/death.

5.12.2. Notify proper authorities.

5.12.3. Protect the crime scene according to requirements of the nature of the crime.

5.12.4. Locate witnesses.

5.12.5. Assist as needed on scene.

5.12.6. Check with supervisor to determine if follow-up is needed.

5.12.7. Complete necessary reports.

5.12.8. Determine if the crime is in progress, if the suspect is still on the premises, or how much time has elapsed since the crime.

For estimating and recording the value of stolen goods:

5.12.9. Identify three sources from the lesson plan list.

For tracing stolen property:

5.12.10. Identify three methods to determine if property is stolen and how to trace it.

5.12.11. List three unique identifiers of stolen goods that assist in conducting a trace.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

First responder duties:

1. Check for injury/death.

2. Notify proper authorities.

3. Protect the crime scene according to requirements of the nature of the crime.

4. Locate witnesses.

5. Assist as needed on scene.

6. Check with supervisor to determine if follow-up is needed.

7. Complete necessary reports.

8. Determine if the crime is in progress, if the suspect is still on the premises, or how much time has elapsed since the crime.

Sources that assist in estimating and recording the value of stolen goods:

1. National Automobile Dealers Association (NADA) Books (for vehicles and boats).

2. American Insurance Association

3. Personal Property Tax Records

4. Pawn Shop Blue Books

5. Replacement cost estimates

6. Appraisal lists by experts

7. Insurance adjusters

Tracing stolen property:

1. Methods to determine if property is stolen and how to trace it.

a. Check Virginia Crime Information Network (VCIN)/National Crime Information Network (NCIC) entries

b. Checking of teletypes and pawn shop lists

c. Attempt restoration of serial/model numbers

d. Check Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) assist for vehicles

e. Check manufacturer lot numbers

f. Check for social security number

g. Check with informants/concerned citizens

h. Others as may be identified.

2. Unique identifiers of stolen goods that assist in conducting a trace

a. Serial numbers

b. Model numbers

c. Etched numbers

d. Social security number

e. Unique descriptors of the goods (marks, dents, etc.)

f. Easily seen

g. Obliterated

h. Hidden

i. Others as may be identified.

Performance Outcome 5.13.

Conduct a preliminary investigation of a hate crime, and follow-up investigation when assigned.

Training Objectives Relating to 5.13.

1. Given a written or practical exercise, identify or demonstrate the duties of the first responding officer to investigate events relating to a hate crime.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

5.13.1. Check for injury/death.

5.13.2. Notify proper authorities.

5.13.3. Protect the crime scene according to requirements of the nature of the crime.

5.13.4. Locate witnesses.

5.13.5. Assist as needed on scene.

5.13.6. Check with supervisor to determine if follow-up is needed.

5.13.7. Complete necessary reports (including required state forms that must be completed related to investigation of a hate crime).

5.13.8. Determine if the crime is in progress, if the suspect is still on the premises, or how much time has elapsed since the crime.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Check for injury/death.

2. Notify proper authorities.

a. Fire marshal (when appropriate)

b. ATF (when appropriate)

3. Protect the crime scene according to requirements of the nature of the crime.

4. Locate witnesses.

5. Assist as needed on scene.

6. Check with supervisor to determine if follow-up is needed.

7. Complete necessary reports (including required state forms that must be completed related to investigation of a hate crime).

8. Determine if the crime is in progress, if the suspect is still on the premises, or how much time has elapsed since the crime.

Performance Outcome 5.14.

Conduct a preliminary investigation of suspicious fires, and follow-up investigation when assigned.

Training Objectives Relating to 5.14.

1. Given a written or practical exercise, identify or demonstrate the duties of the first responding officer to investigate events relating to a suspicious fire.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

5.14.1. Check for injury/death.

5.14.2. Notify proper authorities.

5.14.3. Protect the crime scene according to requirements of the nature of the crime.

5.14.4. Locate witnesses.

5.14.5. Assist as needed on scene.

5.14.6. Check with supervisor to determine if follow-up is needed.

5.14.7. Complete necessary reports.

5.14.8. Determine if the crime is in progress, if the suspect is still on the premises, or how much time has elapsed since the crime.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Check for injury/death.

2. Notify proper authorities.

3. Protect the crime scene according to requirements of the nature of the crime.

4. Locate witnesses.

5. Assist as needed on scene.

6. Check with supervisor to determine if follow-up is needed.

7. Complete necessary reports.

8. Determine if the crime is in progress, if the suspect is still on the premises, or how much time has elapsed since the crime.

Performance Outcome 5.15.

Conduct preliminary investigation of weapons/firearms offenses, and follow-up investigation when assigned.

Training Objectives Relating to 5.15.

1. Given a written exercise, identify the duties of the first responding officer to investigate events relating to weapons/firearms offenses.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

5.15.1. Check for injury/death.

5.15.2. Notify proper authorities.

5.15.3. Protect the crime scene according to requirements of the nature of the crime.

5.15.4. Locate witnesses.

5.15.5. Assist as needed on scene.

5.15.6. Check with supervisor to determine if follow-up is needed.

5.15.7. Complete necessary reports and comply with the U.S. Department of Justice and State Police ( § 52-25.1) reporting requirements.

5.15.8. Determine if the crime is in progress, if the suspect is still on the premises, or how much time has elapsed since the crime.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Check for injury/death.

2. Notify proper authorities (ATF when appropriate).

3. Protect the crime scene according to requirements of the nature of the crime.

4. Locate witnesses.

5. Assist as needed on scene.

6. Check with supervisor to determine if follow-up is needed.

7. Complete necessary reports.

8. Determine if the crime is in progress, if the suspect is still on the premises, or how much time has elapsed since the crime.

Performance Outcome 5.16.

Observe, protect and preserve wounds, injuries and evidence pertaining to dead bodies and notify proper authority.

Training Objectives Relating to 5.16.

1. Given a written or practical exercise, identify or demonstrate techniques used to protect and preserve wounds, injuries and evidence pertaining to dead bodies.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

5.16.1. Techniques to protect a body and other evidence to prevent crime scene contamination or alteration.

5.16.2. Identify three items or procedures that may be used to make an identification of a dead body.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Techniques to protect a body and other evidence to prevent crime scene contamination or alteration.

a. Assumption of control over the body by the investigating officer

b. Type of materials acceptable to cover a body (tent over body not touching it is preferred)

c. If, when, and what materials to use to protect evidence on hands and feet (paper is preferred)

d. Preserving blood evidence

e. Preserving evidence on weapons

f. Preserving evidence in extremely hot, wet, or cold conditions

g. Preserving evidence in or on vehicles

h. Using universal precautions

i. Using protective gloves, jacket, shoes

j. Using needed equipment (blood containers, protective bags, etc.)

2. Identify procedures that may be used to make an identification of a dead body.

a. Wallet

b. Vehicle

c. Another person

d. Fingerprints

e. Dental records

f. Hospital records (note: x-rays are not kept forever, but may be on microfiche)

g. Facial reconstruction

h. Tattoos

i. Unique characteristics of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

j. Rings/jewelry

k. Eye glass prescriptions

1. Other methods as may be added

3. Investigate all deaths from this point as a homicide until proven otherwise.

Performance Outcome 5.17.

Photograph or videotape crime scene for evidence documentation and scene depiction.

Training Objective Relating to 5.17.

1. Given a written or audio-visual exercise, identify types of photographs that should be taken at a crime scene for evidence documentation and scene depiction.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

5.17.1. Close-up

5.17.2. Mid-range

5.17.3. Overall

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Close-up

2. Mid-range

3. Overall

4. Available lighting

5. Photographs & scales

Instructor Note: Advise trainees that they will be instructed in the use of the department camera during field training if assigned to take photographs.

Performance Outcome 5.18.

Record locations of all evidence recovered from a crime scene.

Training Objectives Relating to 5.18.

1. Given a practical exercise, record the location of all evidence in a crime scene sketch.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

5.18.1. Record on paper

5.18.1.1. Date

5.18.1.2. Time

5.18.1.3. Officer’s name

5.18.1.4. Location and identification of evidence

5.18.1.5. Case number

5.18.1.6. Crime scene location

5.18.1.7. Type of offense

5.18.1.8. Directional indicators (N, S, E, W)

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Record on paper

a. Date

b. Time

c. Officer’s name

d. Location and identification of evidence

e. Case number

f. Crime scene location

g. Type of offense

h. Directional indicators (N, S, E, W)

Performance Outcome 5.19.

Identify investigative and potential laboratory value of evidence from crime scenes, and crime lab analyses that help investigative efforts.

Training Objectives Relating to 5.19.

Given a written exercise:

1. Identify items observed from crime scenes as having potential value for investigative and laboratory analysis that may result in evidence.

2. Identify types of forensic analyses that can be conducted to assist investigations.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

5.19.1. Identification of three items on the lesson plan guide as having investigative or laboratory analysis value.

5.19.2. Identification of three types of forensic analysis from the lesson plan guide.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Firearms

2. Toolmarks

3. Fingermarks

4. Automobile lamps and other parts

5. Blood/Body Fluid

6. Drugs/Drug substances/Drug paraphernalia

7. Hair

8. Fingerprints

9. Questioned documents (checks, wills, etc.)

10. Bloodstain patterns

11. Paint

12. Synthetic fibers/clothing

13. Glass

14. Gunshot residue (GSR)

15. Fire debris

16. Footwear and tire impressions

17. Anatomical features (impressions)                       

18. Post mortem lividity                      

19. Vegetation under or around body

20. Insects under or around body

21. Bite marks

22. PERK (Physical Evidence Recovery Kit)

23. Ligature marks

24. Skin coloring (e.g. carbon monoxide)

25. Amount of swelling

26. Temperature

27. Weather

28. Humidity

29. Cartridge Cases

30. NIBIN (National Integrated Ballistics Information Network)

31. Projectiles

32. General debris

33. DNA

34. Toxicology

35. Arson/explosive/chemical residue                                                                 

Performance Outcome 5.20.

Locate, evaluate, collect or protect evidence from a crime scene. Prepare fingerprints, questioned documents and other evidence for lab submission.

Training Objectives Relating to 5.20.

1. Given a practical exercise, describe and demonstrate the collection and packaging of evidence as prescribed by the state laboratory. (Division of Forensic Science “Evidence Handling Guide”).

2. Given a practical exercise, locate, evaluate, and collect latent prints from the following surfaces: glass, plastic, and aluminum.

3. Given a written or practical exercise, identify surfaces that should be taken directly to the lab or processed by a technician for latent print recovery.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

5.20.1. Collection

5.20.2. Packaging

5.20.3. Lab submission forms completion

5.20.4. The process for lifting latent prints from glass, plastic, and aluminum.

5.20.5. The process to search for prints by use of appropriate lighting techniques (flashlight to alternate light source).

5.20.6. Identification of the surfaces from the following list that should be taken directly to the lab or processed by a technician:

5.20.6.1. Crinkled surfaces (metal, wood, plastic)

5.20.6.2. Moist surfaces

5.20.6.3. Galvanized metal

5.20.6.4. Paper

5.20.6.5. Unpainted wood

5.20.6.6. Prints in blood, paint and other liquids

5.20.6.7. Plastic bags (lab)

5.20.6.8. Ferris metal (lab)

5.20.6.9. Painted wood - non-porous surface (lab)

5.20.6.10. Items containing other types of evidence such as blood

5.20.6.11. Textured surfaces, i.e., typewriter case, computers, etc.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Collection of latent prints.

2. Packaging of latent prints.

3. Lab submission forms completion.

4. The process for lifting latent prints from glass, plastic, and aluminum.

5. The process to search for prints by use of appropriate lighting techniques (flashlight to alternate light source).

6. Identification of the surfaces from the following list that should be taken directly to the lab or processed by a technician:

a. Crinkled surfaces (metal, wood, plastic)

b. Moist surfaces

c. Galvanized metal

d. Paper

e. Unpainted wood

f. Prints in blood, paint and other liquids

g. Plastic bags (lab)

h. Ferris metal (lab)

i. Painted wood - non-porous surface (lab)

j. Items containing other types of evidence such as blood

k. Textured surfaces, i.e., typewriter case, computers, etc.

Performance Outcome 5.21.

Identify the circumstances under which a suspect may be lawfully fingerprinted, and obtain classifiable fingerprints for the purpose of subject identification.

Training Objectives Relating to 5.21.

1. Given a written and practical exercise, identify the circumstances which lawfully permit fingerprinting a suspect, and obtain classifiable fingerprints.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

5.21.1. Identify the circumstances under which a suspect may be lawfully fingerprinted.

5.21.2. Identify the purpose of elimination fingerprints.

5.21.3. Obtain classifiable fingerprints for the purpose of subject identification in a practical demonstration utilizing proper fingerprinting techniques and equipment.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Identify the circumstances under which a suspect may be lawfully fingerprinted.

a. Charged with a felony

b. Charged with a class I or class II misdemeanor

c. Convicted of the above

d. Juveniles

2. Identify the purpose of elimination fingerprints.

3. Obtain classifiable fingerprints for the purpose of subject identification in a practical demonstration utilizing proper fingerprinting techniques and equipment.

a. Rolling

b. Livescan (where available).

Performance Outcome 5.22.

Interview a complainant, witness, victim or suspect.

Training Objectives Relating to 5.22.

1. Given a written exercise, identify factors to consider in conducting a suspect interview.

2. Given a practical exercise:

a. Interview a complainant, a witness or a victim.

b. Interview a suspect combining legal requirements and interview techniques.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

For a complainant, a witness or a victim:

5.22.1. Professional demeanor

5.22.2. Use of open-ended questions.

5.22.3. Recording of information necessary to complete a report.

For a suspect:

5.22.4. Three considerations of conducting an interview.

5.22.5. Three interview styles

5.22.6. A strategy and questions to ask prior to the questioning.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

For a complainant, a witness or a victim:

1. Professional demeanor

2. Use of open-ended questions.

3. Information necessary to complete a report.

4. Complainants and witnesses should be interviewed separately and early in the case.

5. Statements are made under conditions that provide for no duress, threats, or promises.

6. The focus is on details that bring out the facts of the case and build on these.

a. Be aware of perceptions of the public about police interviews.

7. Complainants and witnesses are informed that they may be re-interviewed later for information that they may not remember at the moment or about information subsequently developed.

8. Complainants and witnesses are thanked for their information and/or assistance.

9. Identify when/if interview shifts from an interview to an interrogation or becomes accusatory.

For a suspect:

1. Identify three considerations of conducting an interview:

a. Timing

b. Location

c. Physical and emotional needs

d. Drug and alcohol effects

e. Preparation

f. Privacy

g. Physical barriers

h. Juvenile/adult.

2. Identify three interview styles:

a. Factual

b. Sympathetic

c. Hostile

d. Apathetic

e. Face-saving

f. Complimentary.

3. Identify a strategy and questions to ask prior to the questioning to determine as much as possible who, what, where, when, why and how.

4. Given a practical exercise combining legal requirements and interview techniques, conduct a suspect interview.

a. Introduction and purpose of the interview

b. Question for desired information

c. Adhere to legal requirements

d. Conclude

Performance Outcome 5.23.

Interview medical personnel to obtain information.

Training Objectives Relating to 5.23.

1. Given a written exercise, identify three types of information that may be provided by medical personnel.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

5.23.1. Identification of three types of information that may be provided by medical personnel from the list in the lesson plan guide.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Type(s) of injury

2. Seriousness of injury

3. Weapon used

4. Presence of physical evidence

5. Any statements by victim

6. Where victim was at time of crime.

7. How victim was situated (sitting, standing, prone).

8. Others as may be identified.

Performance Outcome 5.24.

Ensure full understanding of the words of an interviewee, suspect, victim.

Training Objectives Relating to 5.24.

1. Given a practical exercise, complete an accurate written report based on an interview.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

5.24.1. Facts related to the crime.

5.24.2. Events preceding the crime.

5.24.3. Write a synopsis of the information gained during the interview.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Facts related to the crime.

2. Events preceding the crime.

3. Identification of good listening techniques that encourage the person to talk.

4. Clarification of words or slang.

5. Use of open-ended questions.

6. Use of simple and focused language.

7. Use of “listening” body language

a. Casual observation

b. Feedback language

c. Gaining complete information about interviewee

8. Write a synopsis of the information gained during the interview

a. Summarize the statements of witnesses and complainants to answer who, what, where, when, why, and how of an incident

b. Use a functional rather than a literary style

c. Be accurate, reliable, and objective

d. Remove grammar and spelling errors

e. Cover as completely as possible what the witness sees or knows.

Performance Outcome 5.25

Examine public records or records that are available only for law enforcement purposes to help locate missing or wanted persons.

Training Objectives Relating to 5.25

1. Given a written exercise, identify public records or records that are only for law enforcement purposes which should be examined to help locate missing or wanted persons.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

5.25.1. Identification of three types of public records that help to locate missing or wanted persons from the list on the lesson plan.

5.25.2. Identification of three types of records that are only for law enforcement purposes that should be examined to help locate missing or wanted persons from the list on the lesson plan.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. National Crime Information Network (NCIC)

2. Virginia Crime Information Network (VCIN)

3. Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV)

4. Probation and Parole

5. Criminal Histories

6. Arrest Records

7. Retail Merchants Credit Checks

8. Utilities Inquiries

9. U. S. Postal Service

10. Property Tax Records

11. Assessors Records

12. Social Service Records

13. Court Records

14. Public School Records

15. Military Records

16. Financial Records

17. Other Law Enforcement Agencies

18. Unemployment Compensation Records

19. Police Reports

20. ROCIC (Regional Organized Crime Information Center)

21. MAGLOCEN (Mid-Atlantic Great Lakes Organized Crime Law Enforcement Network) - similar to Homicide Assessment & Lead Tracking (HALT) and Violent Criminal Apprehension Program (VICAP) but for northern states)

22. Virginia Association of Law Enforcement Intelligence Documentation (VALID) (publication and networking groups)

23. State Police Fugitive Unit

24. Others as may be identified.

Instructor Note: Advise trainees that they must identify department policy regarding privacy and security of persons and information as part of department training.

Performance Outcome 5.26.

Determine reliability and credibility of witnesses.

Training Objectives Relating to 5.26.

1. Given a written exercise, identify resources to help determine the reliability and credibility of witnesses.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

5.26.1. Identification of three resources that help determine reliability and credibility of witnesses from the list on the lesson plan guide.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. National Crime Information Network (NCIC)

2. Virginia Crime Information Network (VCIN)

3. Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV)

4. Probation and Parole

5. Criminal Histories

6. Arrest Records

7. Retail Merchant Credit Checks

8. Utilities Inquiries

9. Public Records

10. U.S. Postal Service

11. Military Records

12. Other Law Enforcement Agencies

13. Financial Institutions

14. Crime Analysis Information Exchanges

15. Automatic Fingerprint Identification (AFIS)

16. Employers, former employers

17. Others as may be identified.

Instructor Note: Advise trainees that they must identify department policy regarding privacy and security of persons and information as part of department training.

bscharf

Defensive Tactics/Use of Force

Defensive Tactics/Use of Force

Performance Outcome 6.1.

Pat down suspect(s) or search arrested person(s).

Training Objectives Related to 6.1.

1. Given a written exercise, identify factors to consider in conducting a pat down of a suspect and search of an arrested person.

2. Given a practical exercise, demonstrate the technique of conducting a pat down of a suspect and search of an arrested person.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

6.1.1. Definition of a pat down and a search

6.1.2. Identification of those places on males and females where dangerous weapons or contraband may be concealed

6.1.3. Identification of concealed weapon clues

6.1.4. Identification of pre-assault indicators

6.1.5. Identification of contact and cover principles for safe approach to single and multiple suspects.

6.1.6. The techniques of conducting a pat down and a search.

6.1.6.1. Verbal directions to give

6.1.6.2. Placement of single or multiple suspects in a pre-pat down position

6.1.6.3. Placement of single or multiple subjects in a standing, kneeling and prone search position.

6.1.6.4. Control and suspect security during a pat down and a search

6.1.6.5. Safely retrieving and securing weapons or contraband that are identified during a pat down and a search

6.1.6.6. Communicating relevant information to the cover officer

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Definition of a pat down and a search

2. Identification of those places on males and females where dangerous weapons or contraband may be concealed

3. Identification of concealed weapon clues

4. Identification of pre-assault indicators

5. Identification of contact and cover principles for safe approach to single and multiple suspects

6. The techniques of conducting a pat down and a search.

a. Verbal directions to give

b. Placement of single or multiple suspects in a pre-pat down position

c. Placement of single or multiple subjects in a standing, kneeling and prone search position.

d. Control and suspect security during a pat down and a search

e. Safely retrieving and securing weapons or contraband that are identified during a pat down and a search

f. Communicating relevant information to the cover officer

Performance Outcome 6.2.

Restrain publicly intoxicated, disruptive or violent individuals.

Training Objectives Related to 6. 2.

1. Given a practical exercise, demonstrate techniques regarding restraint of publicly intoxicated, disruptive persons or violent individuals.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

6.2.1. Officer safety considerations

6.2.1.1. Key planning elements related to isolating a disruptive individual from other members of the public

6.2.1.2. Use of available backup officer(s)

6.2.2. Command presence (stance, posture, eye contact)

6.2.3. Communication skills to minimize antagonistic responses

6.2.4. Appropriate escalation/de-escalation on a force continuum

6.2.5. Restraint procedures

6.2.6. Effecting an arrest

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Officer safety considerations

a. Key planning elements related to isolating a disruptive individual from other members of the public

b. Use of available backup officer(s).

2. Command presence (stance, posture, eye contact)

3. Communication skills to minimize antagonistic responses

4. Appropriate escalation/de-escalation on a force continuum

5. Restraint procedures

6. Effecting an arrest

Performance Outcome 6.3.

Participate in raids and searches when assigned.

Training Objectives Related to 6.3.

1. Given a written exam, identify three considerations for participating in raids and searches.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

6.3.1. Importance of intelligence gathering/planning for raids or searches

6.3.2. Pre-raid/pre-search briefing

6.3.3. On-scene command and control of all raid or search aspects

6.3.4. Interagency communications, policy differences and personnel identification

6.3.5. Chain of custody concerns

6.3.6. Logistical requirements

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Importance of intelligence gathering/planning for raids or searches

2. Pre-raid/pre-search briefing

3. On-scene command and control of all raid or search aspects

a. Booby trap identification

b. Room entry techniques (proper movement and recognition)

4. Interagency communications, policy differences, and personnel identification

5. Chain of custody concerns

6. Logistical requirements

7. Identify reasons for secrecy (need to know basis)

Instructor Note: Advise trainees that they must identify department policy and procedures for participating in raids and searches with multiple agencies during department training.

Performance Outcome 6. 4.

Extract a person out of a vehicle who is resisting arrest.

Training Objectives Related to 6. 4.

1. Given a written or practical exercise, identify or demonstrate techniques for extracting a person out of a vehicle who is resisting arrest.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

6.4.1. Use appropriate extraction techniques

6.4.2. Maintain control of suspect

6.4.3. Use appropriate level of force

6.4.4. Use appropriate restraints

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Use extraction techniques

2. Maintain control of suspect

3. Use appropriate level of force

4. Use appropriate restraints

Performance Outcome 6.5.

Approach pedestrian suspects/subjects on foot and from patrol vehicle.

Training Objective Related to 6.5.

1. Given a practical exercise, safely approach pedestrian suspects/subjects on foot and from patrol vehicle.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

6.5.1. Evaluate risk to public and officer

6.5.1.1. People in area

6.5.1.2. Easily accessed buildings

6.5.1.3. Potential escape routes

6.5.1.4. Cover

6.5.1.5. Potential for situation to escalate

6.5.1.6. Back-up

6.5.2. Techniques of safe approach

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Evaluate risk to public and officer

a. people in area

b. easily accessed buildings

c. potential escape routes

d. cover

e. potential for situation to escalate

f. back-up

g. other items as may be identified

2. Techniques of safe approach

Performance Outcome 6.6.

Identify the use of force necessary and appropriate to law enforcement services.

Training Objectives Related to 6.6.

1. Given a written or practical exercise, identify the factors that affect the use of reasonable and necessary force.

2. Given a written or practical exercise, identify the factors that affect the officers’ decision to use deadly force.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

6.6.1. Factors affecting the use of force

6.6.1.1. Subject actions

6.6.1.2. Officer perception

6.6.2. Factors affecting the use of deadly force

6.6.2.1. Intent

6.6.2.2. Ability

6.6.2.3. Means

6.6.2.4. Opportunity

6.6.2.5. Legal criteria

6.6.3. General considerations for use of force

6.6.3.1. Key elements for appropriate response for situations where a violent reaction to law enforcement service is foreseen, e.g., multiple officers/backup.

6.6.3.2. Elements of command presence (stance, posture, eye contact)

6.6.3.3. Avoiding unintentional and/or unnecessarily antagonistic and provoking verbal and nonverbal factors by the officer

6.6.3.4. Primary aspects of proper verbalization (invoke authority, announcement of arrest, clarity)

6.6.3.5. Appropriate escalation/de-escalation on a use of force continuum

6.6.3.6. Application of handcuffs and additional restraints

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Factors affecting the use of force

a. Subject actions

b. Officer perception

2. Factors affecting the use of deadly force

a. Intent

b. Ability

c. Means

d. Opportunity

e. Legal criteria

3. General considerations for use of force

a. Key elements for appropriate response for situations where violent reaction to law enforcement service is foreseen, e.g., multiple officers/backup

b. Elements of command presence (stance, posture, eye contact)

c. Avoiding unintentional and/or unnecessarily antagonistic and provoking verbal and nonverbal factors by the officer

d. Primary aspects of proper verbalization (invoke authority, announcement of arrest, clarity)

e. Appropriate escalation/de-escalation on a use of force continuum

1. Define a use of force continuum

2. Identify the decision making process based on a use of force continuum

f. Application of handcuffs and additional restraints

Instructor Note: Advise trainees that they must identify department policy related to the use of force, physical restraints and weapons as part of department training.

Performance Outcome 6.7.

Control non-violent groups, hostile groups, and/or disorderly assemblies, and when necessary physically restrain a crowd or confront in riot formation.

Training Objectives Related to 6.7.

1. Given a written and/or a practical exercise, identify factors to consider when controlling non-violent or hostile groups.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

6.7.1. The elements of the following offenses:

6.7.1.1. Unlawful assembly

6.7.1.2. Disturbing the peace

6.7.1.3. Incitement to riot

6.7.1.4. Disorderly conduct in public places

6.7.2. Three factors for controlling non-violent groups, i.e., peaceable assemblies

6.7.3. Three factors to consider when dealing with hostile groups

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. The elements of the following offenses:

a. Unlawful assembly (§18.2-406)

b. Disturbing the peace (§18.2-406)

c. Incitement to riot (§18.2-408)

d. Disorderly conduct in public places (§18.2-415)

2. Three factors for controlling non-violent groups, i.e., peaceable assemblies

a. Officer safety considerations

b. Command presence

c. Communication skills

d. Boundaries within which crowd must remain or move along

e. Patterns of movement for crowd for ease of traffic flow

f. Emergency access/exit

3. Three factors to consider when dealing with hostile groups

a. Identify techniques of detecting violations of state laws/local ordinances (sources of disturbance in a crowd by noise and movements)

b. Identify high risk areas (behind bleachers; dark areas)

c. Identify conditions that will document a law violation

d. Identify appropriate steps to enforce the law

1. Officer safety considerations

a. Monitor the groups activity

b. Wait for appropriate back-up

c. Assess the group’s propensity toward violence

d. Determine the nature of their weapons

e. Identify which subjects are believed to be leaders

2. Command presence

a. Safely approach the hostile group

b. Identify appropriate formations for potential riot

c. Identify emergency escape routes

d. Position police vehicles to maximize cover

e. Coordinate cover and contact responsibilities

3. Communication skills and voice commands

a. Establish contact with the hostile group

b. Formally identify the group leaders

c. Ascertain the reason(s) for their hostility

d. Use calming techniques to reduce emotions and restore rational “group thought”

e. Evaluate the group’s proposed solutions to determine their specific “needs.”

f. Communicate the officer’s position and responsibilities in the situation

g. Relate any applicable laws and consequences of continued acts

h. Explain the group’s option: comply with the law and pursue legal resolutions.

i. Reassure the group of police commitment to resolve the group’s problems and restore peace and tranquility to the area

4. Techniques of crowd control

a. Smaller hostile groups

b. Larger hostile groups or rioters

c. Use stretched out arms to indicate a barrier when appropriate

d. Use shield, barricade, impact weapon, riot stick, or other item to block crowd when appropriate

5. Move crowd using authorized and appropriate use of force.

6. Arrest procedures

7. Transportation of arrestees

8. Medical needs

Performance Outcome 6.8.

Break up fights between two or more persons.

Training Objectives Related to 6.8.

1. Given a practical exercise, demonstrate techniques for breaking up fights between two or more persons during a simulation exercise.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

6.8.1. Evaluate the situation

6.8.2. Intervene verbally

6.8.3. Use the appropriate level of force

6.8.4. Use officer safety procedures

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Evaluate the situation

2. Intervene verbally

3. Use the appropriate level of force

4. Use officer safety procedures

Performance Outcome 6.9.

Determine the need for use of deadly force and take appropriate action.

Training Objectives Related to 6.9.

1. Given a practical exercise or case scenario(s) using the following criteria, evaluate person(s) as an immediate deadly force threat, use judgment as to when to draw a weapon, cover a suspect, and/or use the weapon while utilizing a safe position, providing verbal direction to the suspect and using available cover.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

6.9.1. Officer will determine whether or not use of deadly force is necessary.

6.9.1.1. Intent

6.9.1.2. Ability

6.9.1.3. Means

6.9.1.4. Opportunity

6.9.2. Officer will determine whether or not the use of a firearm would be justified.

6.9.3. Officer will identify the use of a vehicles as a force on the force continuum.

6.9.4. Officer will evaluate a moving target as an immediate deadly force threat and that the officer has no alternative but to shoot at the moving target

6.9.4.1. Shooting at a moving target is the last resort available. 

Example: Shooting at the driver of a moving vehicle must be the last resort available due to the possibility of the loss of control of the vehicle if the driver is shot.

6.9.5. Identify the extreme hazards to be encountered in attempting to shoot while in motion.

Example: Shooting from a moving vehicle.

6.9.5.1. The practice of shooting from a moving vehicle is in most cases not practical and places the officer and public in severe danger.

6.9.5.2. Alternative measures should be employed by the officer if at all possible, such as seeking cover, slowing their vehicle if being shot at by an adjacent vehicle, etc.

6.9.5.3. The danger officers place themselves and the public in by shooting from a moving vehicle includes the reduced ability to aim a firearm at the threat and perform a fine motor skill such as directing aimed, deliberate gunfire while operating a moving vehicle in a safe and responsible manner.

6.9.5.4. The risk to the officer and the public must be greatly outweighed by the benefit of trying to stop a person who is an immediate deadly threat to the officer or the public in order for an officer to make an attempt to stop that person by firing from a moving vehicle.

6.9.6. Describe reasons why warning shots should not be fired.

6.9.6.1. The discharge of a firearm normally constitutes deadly force. The deadly force standard is for the preservation of life or to prevent serious physical injury.

6.9.6.2. Shooting is normally a last resort option.

6.9.6.3. There is no ability to determine the effect of a warning shot on the person.

6.9.6.4. The officer is accountable for where the round goes or ends up.

6.9.6.4.1. Bullet may ricochet

6.9.6.4.2. Officer cannot determine where bullet will land

6.9.6.5. May be illegal in some circumstances.

6.9.7. Identify at least three potential deadly force scenarios.

6.9.8. Identify other alternatives that the officer may consider using before using deadly force.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Officer will determine whether or not use of deadly force is necessary.

a. Intent

b. Ability

c. Means

d. Opportunity

2. Officer will determine whether or not the use of a firearm would be justified.

3. Officer will identify the use of a vehicle as a force on the force continuum.

4. Officer will evaluate a moving target as an immediate deadly force threat and that the officer has no alternative but to shoot at the moving target

a. Shooting at a moving target is the last resort available.

Example: Shooting at the driver of a moving vehicle must be the last resort available due to the possibility of the loss of control of the vehicle if the driver is shot.

5. Identify the extreme hazards to be encountered in attempting to shoot while in motion.

Example: shooting from a moving vehicle.

a. The practice of shooting from a moving vehicle is in most cases not practical and places the officer and public in severe danger.

b. Alternative measures should be employed by the officer if at all possible, such as seeking cover, slowing their vehicle if being shot at by an adjacent vehicle, etc.

c. The danger officers place themselves and the public in by shooting from a moving vehicle includes the reduced ability to aim a firearm at the threat and perform a fine motor skill such as directing aimed, deliberate gunfire while operating a moving vehicle in a safe and responsible manner.

d. The risk to the officer and the public must be greatly outweighed by the benefit of trying to stop a person who is an immediate deadly threat to the officer or the public in order for an officer to make an attempt to stop that person by firing from a moving vehicle.

6. Describe reasons why warning shots should not be fired.

a. The discharge of a firearm normally constitutes deadly force. The deadly force standard is for the preservation of life or to prevent serious physical injury.

b. Shooting is normally a last resort option.

c. There is no ability to determine the effect of a warning shot on the person.

d. The officer is accountable for where the round goes or ends up.

1. bullet may ricochet

2. officer cannot determine where bullet will land

e. Firing warning shots may be illegal in some circumstances.

7. Identify at least three potential deadly force scenarios.

8. Identify other alternatives that the officer may consider using before using deadly force.

Instructor Note: Advise trainees that they will need to identify department policy related to shooting at or from a moving vehicle and firing warning shots as part of their department training.

Performance Outcome 6.10.                                                

Use weaponless techniques to subdue a person resisting arrest or to control a person.

Training Objectives Related to 6.10.

1. Given a written and practical exercise, demonstrate weaponless techniques to subdue a person resisting arrest or to control a person.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

6.10.1. Identification of psychological and physiological effects of sudden stress related to each effect and reaction using an anatomical chart or volunteer

6.10.2. Identification of basic principles and fundamentals of defensive tactics

6.10.3. Demonstration of technique of approach

6.10.4. Demonstration of blocking principles designed to neutralize attack

6.10.4.1. Low outside

6.10.4.2. Low inside

6.10.4.3. Middle outside

6.10.4.4. Middle inside

6.10.4.5. High

6.10.4.6. Blocks to include both sides

6.10.5. Demonstration of weaponless techniques to control person

6.10.5.1. Effective communications

6.10.5.2. Weaponless (empty hand) control techniques

6.10.5.2.1. Safe contact and initial control

6.10.5.2.1.1. Front

6.10.5.2.1.2. Side

6.10.5.2.1.3. Back

6.10.5.2.2. Decentralization to prone position with minimal risk of injury to resisting suspect

6.10.5.2.3. Stabilization in prone position for cuffing or to await backup officers

6.10.6. Demonstrate blocking techniques with a partner using safety equipment in a controlled environment that provides for minimizing potential injury to the trainee or partner.

6.10.7. Demonstrate techniques to prevent a takedown to the ground.

6.10.7.1. Demonstrate techniques to minimize injury when falling.

6.10.7.2. Demonstrate ground defense techniques to take control of a person from the ground in order to escape and create distance or to position for handcuffing.

6.10.8. Demonstrate ability to protect the firearm and other weapons on the duty belt while on the ground.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Identification of psychological and physiological effects of sudden stress related to each effect and reaction using an anatomical chart or volunteer

2. Identification of basic principles and fundamentals of defensive tactics

3. Demonstration of technique of approach

4. Demonstration of blocking principles designed to neutralize attack

a. Low outside

b. Low inside

c. Middle outside

d. Middle inside

e. High

f. Blocks to include both sides

5. Demonstration of weaponless techniques to control person

a. Effective communications

b. Weaponless (empty hand) control techniques

1. Safe contact and initial control

a. Front

b. Side

c. Back

2. decentralization to prone position with minimal risk of injury to resisting suspect

3. stabilization in prone position for cuffing or to await backup officers

6. Demonstrate blocking techniques with a partner using safety equipment in a controlled environment that provides for minimizing potential injury to the trainee or partner.

7. Demonstrate techniques to prevent a takedown to the ground.

a. Demonstrate techniques to minimize injury when falling.

b. Demonstrate ground defense techniques to take control of a person from the ground in order to escape and create distance or to position for handcuffing.

8. Demonstrate ability to protect the firearm and other weapons on the duty belt while on the ground.

Performance Outcome 6.11.

Subdue a physically attacking person.

Training Objectives Related to 6.11.

1. Given a practical exercise, demonstrate a techniques for defending oneself against a physically attacking person and subduing a person during a simulation exercise using a volunteer or instructor.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

6.11.1. Identification of weapon considerations of suspect and officer

6.11.2. Demonstration of defensive strategy designed to protect officers’ vulnerable targets

6.11.3. Demonstration of offensive active countermeasures designed to neutralize aggressor for de-escalation

6.11.4. Demonstration of de-escalation by:

6.11.4.1. Decentralizing suspect to prone position for cuffing

6.11.4.2. Disengage from suspect

6.11.5. Demonstration of escalation in life and death struggle by:

6.11.5.1. Making transition to weapon to stop aggressor

6.11.5.2. Utilizing extreme physical techniques to stop aggressor

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Identification of weapon considerations of suspect and officer

2. Demonstration of defensive strategy designed to protect officers’ vulnerable targets

3. Demonstration of offensive active countermeasures designed to neutralize aggressor for de-escalation

4. Demonstration of de-escalation by:

a. Decentralizing suspect to prone position for cuffing

b. Disengage from suspect

5. Demonstration of escalation in life and death struggle by:

a. Making transition to weapon to stop aggressor

b. Utilizing extreme physical techniques to stop aggressor

Performance Outcome 6.12.

Subdue a resisting suspect and place in a prone position.

Training Objectives Related to 6.12.

1. Given a practical exercise, demonstrate proper methods of subduing and placing a resisting suspect in a prone position.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

6.12.1. Demonstration of safe contact and initial control.

6.12.2. Demonstration of decentralization to prone position with minimal risk of suspect injury.

6.12.3. Demonstration of stabilization in prone position for cuffing procedure.

6.12.4. Demonstration of bringing a handcuffed person to his or her feet.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Demonstration of safe contact and initial control.

2. Demonstration of decentralization to prone position with minimal risk of suspect injury.

3. Demonstration of stabilization in prone position for cuffing procedure.

4. Demonstration of bringing a handcuffed person to his or her feet.

Performance Outcome 6.13.

Pursue a fleeing suspect on foot and subdue the suspect when apprehended..

Training Objectives Related to 6.13.

1. Given a practical exercise, demonstrate a technique for subduing a suspect after a foot pursuit.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

6.13.1. Assessment of threat by the suspect

6.13.2. Identification of weapon considerations of suspect and officer

6.13.3. Demonstration of weapon control by the officer

6.13.4. Demonstration of contact and initial control

6.13.5. Demonstration of decentralization to prone position with minimal risk of resisting suspect injury.

6.13.6. Demonstration of stabilization in prone position for cuffing procedures

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Assessment of threat by the suspect

2. Identification of weapon considerations of suspect and officer

3. Demonstration of weapon control by the officer

4. Demonstration of contact and initial control

5. Demonstration of decentralization to prone position with minimal risk of resisting suspect injury

6. Demonstration of stabilization in prone position for cuffing procedures

Performance Outcome 6.14.

Use touch pressure or striking pressure to control a person.

Training Objectives Related to 6.14.

1. Given a written, audio-visual, or practical exercise, identify body pressure points.

2. Given a practical exercise, demonstrate pressure point control techniques.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

6.14.1. Identification of body pressure points

6.14.1.1. Identify carotid choke hold as deadly force

6.14.2. Demonstration of pressure point control techniques

6.14.2.1. Touch

6.14.2.2. Strike

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Identification of body pressure points

a. Identify carotid choke hold as deadly force

2. Demonstration of pressure point control techniques

a. Touch

b. Strike

Performance Outcome 6.15.

Disarm an armed suspect.

Training Objectives Related to 6.15.

1. Given a written exercise, identify factors to consider when attempting to disarm a suspect.

2. Given a practical exercise, demonstrate techniques for disarming an armed suspect.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

6.15.1. Identification of factors to consider when assessing whether an attempt to disarm a suspect is appropriate.

6.15.1.1. Distance/cover

6.15.1.2. Type of weapon

6.15.1.3. Obstacles

6.15.1.4. Will attempt jeopardize life or personal safety

6.15.2. Demonstration of a trapping and disarming sequence regarding a handgun and long gun

6.15.2.1. Front

6.15.2.2. Side

6.15.2.3. Rear

6.15.3. Demonstration of a takedown or control of subject armed with handgun or long gun

6.15.3.1. Stopping movement of the handgun or long gun using officer’s personal weapons against aggressor’s vulnerable targets to:

6.15.3.1.1. Disengage and escalate

6.15.3.1.2. Decentralize to prone position for safe disarming

6.15.4. Demonstration of a takedown or control of subject armed with edged weapon

6.15.4.1.  Range of attack and officer awareness

6.15.4.2. Zoning to the outside position for disengagement and escalation or depending upon range and relative position

6.15.4.3. Stopping movement of the edged weapon and using officer’s personal weapons against aggressor’s vulnerable targets to:

6.15.4.3.1. Disengage and escalate

6.15.4.3.2. Decentralize to prone position for safe disarming

6.15.5. Demonstration of a takedown or control of subject armed with bludgeon instrument

6.15.5.1. Stopping movement of the bludgeon weapon and using officer’s personal weapons against aggressor’s vulnerable targets to:

6.15.5.1.1. Disengage and escalate

6.15.5.1.2. Decentralize to prone position for safe disarming

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Identification of factors to consider when assessing whether an attempt to disarm a suspect is appropriate.

a. Distance/cover

b. Type of weapon

c. Obstacles

d. Will attempt jeopardize life or personal safety

2. Demonstration of a trapping and disarming sequence regarding a handgun and long gun

a. Front

b. Side

c. Rear

3. Demonstration of a takedown or control of subject armed with handgun or long gun

a. Stopping movement of the handgun or long gun using officer’s personal weapons against aggressor’s vulnerable targets to:

1. Disengage and escalate

2. Decentralize to prone position for safe disarming

4. Demonstration of a takedown or control of subject armed with edged weapon

a. Range of attack and officer awareness

b. Zoning to the outside position for disengagement and escalation or depending upon range and relative position

c. Stopping movement of the edged weapon and using officer’s personal weapons against aggressor’s vulnerable targets to:

1. Disengage and escalate

2. Decentralize to prone position for safe disarming

5. Demonstration of a takedown or control of subject armed with bludgeon instrument

a. Stopping movement of the bludgeon weapon and using officer’s personal weapons against aggressor’s vulnerable targets to:

1. Disengage and escalate

2. Decentralize to prone position for safe disarming

Performance Outcome 6.16.

Use an impact weapon to control a person.

Training Objectives Related to 6.16.

1. Given a written exam and practical scenarios, identify and demonstrate techniques for using an impact weapon to control a person.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

6.16.1. Identification of the primary, secondary, and lethal target areas

6.16.2. Demonstration of offensive and defensive stances

6.16.3. Demonstration of the proper verbalization and striking techniques for primary, secondary, and the non-lethal target areas

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Identification of the primary, secondary and lethal target areas

2. Demonstration of offensive and defensive stances

3. Demonstration of the proper verbalization and striking techniques for primary, secondary and the lethal target areas

Performance Outcome 6.17.

Handcuff suspect(s) or arrestees and apply leg restraints to arrestee(s).

Training Objectives Related to 6.17.

1. Given a written and practical exercise, identify and demonstrate the techniques of handcuffing suspect(s) or arrestee(s) and applying leg restraints to arrestee(s).

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

6.17.1. Safe and effective handcuffing of cooperative single and multiple suspect(s)

6.17.2. Safe and effective handcuffing of a suspect in the following positions:

6.17.2.1. Standing

6.17.2.2. Kneeling

6.17.2.3. Prone

6.17.3. Safe and effective handcuffing of a suspect after having performed a learned control/take down technique in standing, kneeling, and prone positions

6.17.4. Application of leg irons and “flex cuffs” or other devices that restrain legs or torso avoiding force levels and methods that present unnecessary injury potential to the officer and subject

6.17.5. Definition of positional asphyxia

6.17.5.1. Identify primary medical dangers associated with sudden restraint of violent person

6.17.5.2. Primary medical dangers associated with “hog-tying” a person (positional asphyxia)

6.17.5.3. Identify liability

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Safe and effective handcuffing of cooperative single and multiple suspect(s)

a. Hands to be cuffed behind the back unless a medical reason prohibits.

2. Safe and effective handcuffing of a suspect in the following positions:

a. Standing

b. Kneeling

c. Prone

3. Safe and effective handcuffing of a suspect after having performed a learned control/take down technique in standing, kneeling, and prone positions

4. Application of any combination of hand, waist or leg restraints using force levels and methods that avoid unnecessary injury potential to the officer and subject.

5. Definition of positional asphyxia

a. Identify primary medical dangers associated with sudden restraint of violent person

b. Primary medical dangers associated with “hog-tying” a person (positional asphyxia)

c. Identify liability

Instructor Note: Advise trainees that they must identify department policy related to the use of force, physical restraints, and weapons use as part of department training.

Performance Outcome 6.18.

Use chemical agents and other crowd management equipment.

Training Objectives Related to 6.18.

1. Given a written exam or during a simulation, identify and/or demonstrate where required the techniques of using chemical agents and other crowd management equipment.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

6.18.1. Description of types of chemical agents and aerosol sprays used in law enforcement and methods of deployment

6.18.2. Identification of the proper application of chemical agents and aerosol sprays.

6.18.3. Identification of side effects on persons sprayed with chemical or aerosol spray

6.18.3.1. Short-term

6.18.3.2. Long-term

6.18.4. Demonstration of the use a protective mask to enter a simulated contaminated area following prescribed method and determine when safe to remove mask and exit area

6.18.5. Description of first aid or aftercare to use when contaminated with chemical agents or aerosol sprays according to type and density of the contamination

6.18.6. Description of methods of structural decontamination of chemical or aerosol agents

6.18.7. Description of methods of restraint and transportation of person sprayed with chemical or aerosol agent

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Identification of the ethical consideration involved and legal constraints related to use of chemical agents and aerosol sprays.

2. Description of types of chemical agents and aerosol sprays used in law enforcement and methods of deployment

3. Identification of the proper application of chemical agents and aerosol sprays.

4. Identification of side effects on persons sprayed with chemical or aerosol spray

a. Short-term

b. Long-term

5. Demonstration of the use a protective mask to enter a simulated contaminated area following prescribed method and determine when safe to remove mask and exit area

6. Description of first aid or aftercare to use when contaminated with chemical agents or aerosol sprays according to type and density of the contamination

7. Description of methods of structural decontamination of chemical or aerosol agents

8. Description of methods of restraint and transportation of person sprayed with chemical or aerosol agent

bscharf

Weapons

Weapons

CATEGORY 7 - WEAPONS

Performance Outcome 7.1.

Clean and inspect weapons system. (revolver, semi-automatic weapon)

Training Objectives Related to 7.1.

1. Given a written exercise, identify nomenclature of weapons. (revolver, semi-automatic weapon)

2. Given a practical exercise, demonstrate prescribed procedure for cleaning weapon. (revolver, semi-automatic weapon)

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

7.1.1. Identification of the correct terms to identify weapons and parts of weapons. (revolver, semi-automatic weapon)

7.1.2. Demonstration of prescribed procedure to prepare weapon for cleaning. (revolver, semi-automatic weapon)

7.1.2.1. Remove magazine or empty cylinder

7.1.2.2. Remove round from chamber

7.1.2.3. Double check weapon to make sure it is empty

7.1.3. Identification of weapon cleaning equipment. (revolver, semi-automatic weapon)

7.1.4. Demonstration of the use of weapon cleaning equipment. (revolver, semi-automatic weapon)

7.1.4.1. Field strip weapon

7.1.4.2. Clean components

7.1.4.3. Inspect for damage and imperfections

7.1.4.4. Lubricate

7.1.4.5. Reassemble

7.1.4.6. Safely test for proper function

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Identification of the correct terms to identify weapons and parts of weapons. (revolver, semi-automatic weapon)

2. Demonstration of prescribed procedure to prepare weapon for cleaning. (revolver, semi-automatic weapon)

a. Remove magazine or empty cylinder

b. Remove round from chamber

c. Double check weapon to make sure it is empty

3. Identification of weapon cleaning equipment. (revolver, semi-automatic weapon)

4. Demonstration of the use of weapon cleaning equipment. (revolver, semi-automatic weapon)

a. Field strip weapon

b. Clean components

c. Inspect for damage and imperfections

d. Lubricate

e. Reassemble

f. Safely test for proper function

Performance Outcome 7.2.

Using proper hand grip and observation, draw department issued weapon from holster. (revolver or semi-automatic weapon)

Training Objectives Related to 7.2.

1. Given practical exercises, use a good and consistent combat grip with a safe and efficient draw from the holster following prescribed drawing techniques using the officer’s approved handgun and holster. (revolver or semi-automatic weapon)

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

7.2.1. Draw and fire

7.2.2. Draw to a ready position

7.2.3. Draw to a “cover mode” simulating the covering of a suspect together with the issuance of the verbal order “Police - Don’t Move!”

7.2.4. Using standing, kneeling, and prone positions

7.2.5. Use of covering and concealment while maintaining visual contact with the threat

7.2.6. Reloading while concentrated on the threat and not the weapon

7.2.7. Clear handgun stoppages

7.2.8. Reholster weapon

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Draw and fire

2. Draw to a ready position

3. Draw to a “cover mode” simulating the covering of a suspect together with the issuance of the verbal order “Police - Don’t Move!”

4. Using standing, kneeling and prone positions

5. Use of covering and concealment while maintaining visual contact with the threat

6. Reloading while concentrated on the threat and not the weapon

7. Clear handgun stoppages

8. Reholster weapon

Definitions:

a. Gripping: using sufficient strength to hold a weapon on a plane so that the projectile will travel on a line to the target

b. Lifting: having adequate strength to lift the weapon to eye level while maintaining safe control

c. Range of vision: should be such that a person can focus on one object (sights) and still see an image of the target

d. Strength: overall strength should be a minimum of being able to perform normal task without fatiguing quickly

e. Breathing: holding breath for a minimal time in order to complete the task of firing the weapon

f. Cover mode: finger outside the trigger guard until you are on target and have decided to fire

Performance Outcome 7.3.

Clear stoppage in semi-automatic pistols and revolvers. Demonstrate safe handling of weapons on the range and on and off duty.

Training Objectives Related to 7.3.

Given a practical exercise:

1. Demonstrate the techniques for clearing stoppages in pistols or revolvers.

2. Demonstrate safe handling of weapons on the range and how to do so on and off duty.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

7.3.1. Techniques for clearing stoppages:

7.3.1.1. Semi-automatic pistol

7.3.1.1.1. Failure to fire

7.3.1.1.2. Failure to feed

7.3.1.1.3. Failure to eject

7.3.1.1.4. Failure to extract

7.3.1.2. Revolver

7.3.1.2.1. When trigger is pulled and revolver does not fire

7.3.1.2.2. When trigger gets tight and cylinder will not turn

7.3.1.2.3. When there is a squib load

7.3.2. Demonstration of safe handling of weapons on the range and identification of safe handling of weapons on and off duty.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Techniques for clearing stoppages:

a. Semi-automatic pistol

1. Failure to fire

2. Failure to feed

3. Failure to eject

4. Failure to extract

b. Revolver

1. When trigger is pulled and revolver does not fire

2. When trigger gets tight and cylinder will not turn

3. When there is a Squib load

2. Demonstration of safe handling procedures of weapon while on the range and identification of safe handling procedures of weapon on and off duty.

Performance Outcome 7.4.

Fire a hand gun in various combat situations using issued equipment.

Training Objectives Related to 7.4.

1. Fire the officer’s issued/approved weapon during daytime/low light and/or night time combat range exercises using issued/approved loading device, issued/approved holster and flashlight with 70% accuracy on two of the approved courses of fire.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

7.4.1. Demonstrate dry firing and basic shooting principles.

7.4.2. Using proper marksmanship and reloading fundamentals, fire a minimum of 200 rounds with issued (or equal to this) ammunition in daylight conditions using issued/approved weapon prior to qualification.

7.4.3. Qualify on two of the below selected courses with approved targets under daylight conditions using issued (or equal to this) duty ammunition, weapon, duty belt and holster:

7.4.3.1. Virginia Modified Double Action Course for Semi-automatic Pistols and Revolvers, 60 rounds, 7, 15, 25 yards shooting.  (See Appendix A)

7.4.3.2. Virginia Modified Combat Course I, 60 rounds, 25, 15, 7 yards shooting  (See Appendix B)

7.4.3.3. Virginia Modified Combat Course II, 60 rounds, 25, 15, 7, 5, 3 yards shooting (See Appendix C)

7.4.3.4. Virginia Qualification Course I, 50 rounds, 25 to 5 yards shooting (See Appendix D)

7.4.3.5. Virginia Qualification Course II, 60 rounds, 3 to 25 yards shooting (See Appendix E)

7.4.3.6. Virginia Tactical Qualification Course I, 50 rounds, 5 or 7, 25 yards shooting (See Appendix F)

7.4.3.7. Virginia Tactical Qualification Course II, 36 rounds, 3 to 25 yards shooting (See Appendix G)

7.4.3.8. Virginia Tactical Qualification Course III, 50 rounds, 1/3 to 25 yards shooting (See Appendix H)

7.4.3.9. Virginia Tactical Qualification Course IV, 60 rounds, 1/3 to 25 yards shooting (See Appendix I)

7.4.3.10. Virginia Tactical Qualification Course V, 50 rounds, 1/3 to 25 yards shooting (See Appendix J)

7.4.4. Fire a minimum of 25 rounds on a low light and/or a minimum of 25 rounds on a nighttime course for practice prior to qualification using the agency issued or approved handgun, duty holster and loading device.

7.4.4.1. Fire a minimum of 25 rounds on a low light and/or a minimum of 25 rounds on a nighttime qualification course with a 70% qualification score on each course.

7.4.4.2. Fire a minimum of 12 rounds with use of a flashlight in Appendix B or Appendix C above.

7.4.4.2.1. Identify the advantages and disadvantages of three methods of flashlight use with a weapon.

7.4.4.2.2. Identify the correct target threat by using flashlight techniques and weapon in hand.

7.4.4.3. Low light and nighttime practice and qualifications courses with time limitations and distances will be established by the school, agency, or academy board.

7.4.4.4. Fire from point shoulder positions, cover down positions and barricade positions.

7.4.4.5. Fire using strong and weak hand as appropriate:

7.4.4.5.1. Standing position

7.4.4.5.2. Kneeling position

7.4.4.5.3. Prone position

7.4.4.6. Reload the weapon with emphasis on utilizing tactical reloads where appropriate

7.4.4.7. Correct any weapon stoppages that may occur

7.4.5. Fire familiarization drills using a minimum of 50 rounds (10 per position) with issued (or equal to this) ammunition to include:

7.4.5.1. Moving forward and backward (officer and/or target).

7.4.5.2. Moving side to side (officer and/or target).

7.4.5.3. Use of cover and concealment.

7.4.5.4. Shove and shoot.

7.4.5.5. Seated straight/90 degrees to simulate shooting from a vehicle.

Performance Outcome 7.5.

Secure weapons while off duty. (revolvers, semi-automatic weapons)

Training Objectives Related to 7.5.

1. Given a written exercise, identify reasons for and methods for avoiding firearms accidents while off duty.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

7.5.1. Reasons for security

7.5.1.1. Prevent injury and unauthorized access (§18.2-56.2)

7.5.1.2. Minimize theft opportunity (separate ammunition from the weapons)

7.5.2. Methods for security

7.5.2.1. Lock box

7.5.2.1.1. Loaded

7.5.2.1.2. Unloaded

7.5.2.2. Trigger lock

7.5.2.2.1. Unloaded

7.5.2.3. Cable lock

7.5.2.3.1. Unloaded

7.5.2.4. Disassemble weapon 

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Reasons for security

a. Prevent injury and unauthorized access (§18.2-56.2)

b. Minimize theft opportunity (separate ammunition from the weapons)

2. Methods for security

a. Lock box

1. Loaded

2. Unloaded

b. Trigger lock

1. Unloaded

c. Cable lock

1. Unloaded

d. Disassemble weapon

Performance Outcome 7.6.

Carry a firearm when off duty. (revolver, semi-automatic weapon)

Training Objectives Related to 7.6.

1. Given a written exercise, identify the factors to consider when carrying a firearm while off duty. (revolver, semi-automatic weapon)

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

7.6.1. Identification that an officer must comply with department policy relating to carrying a firearm while off duty and qualifying with the off duty firearm.

7.6.2. Identification of statutes that regulate the carrying of firearms while off duty.

7.6.3. Identification of the impact that alcohol consumption may have on judgment relating to use of firearms while off duty.

7.6.4. Identification of conditions that should be maintained while carrying a firearm off duty.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Identification that an officer must comply with department policy relating to carrying a firearm while off duty and qualifying with the off duty firearm.

2. Identification of statutes that regulate the carrying of firearms while off duty.

3. Identification of the impact that alcohol consumption may have on judgment relating to use of firearms while off duty.

4. Identification of conditions that should be maintained while carrying a firearm off duty

a. Concealed

b. Cecure (retaining device)

c. Accessible

d. Law enforcement identification with weapon

e. Jurisdiction

f. Training

5. Identification of response to being stopped by on-duty officer:

a. Upon being challenged, members will remain motionless unless given a positive directive otherwise.

b. Members will obey the commands of the challenging member, whether or not he/she is in uniform. This may entail submission to arrest.

c.  Members will not attempt to produce identification unless and until so instructed.

d. If circumstances permit, members may verbally announce their identity and state the location of their badge and credentials.

e. Members should ask the challenger to repeat any directions or questions that are unclear and should never argue with challenger.

f. Challenged members will follow all instructions received until recognition is acknowledged.

 

WEAPONS PERFORMANCE OUTCOMES 

APPENDIX A

VIRGINIA MODIFIED DOUBLE ACTION COURSE FOR SEMI-AUTOMATIC PISTOLS AND REVOLVERS

Targets- B-21, B-21X, B-27, Q 

60 ROUNDS, 7 - 25 YARDS

Qualification Score: 70%

Each officer is restricted to the number of magazines carried on duty. Magazines shall be loaded to their full capacity. Range instructor shall determine when magazines will be changed.

PHASE 1 - 7 YARD LINE: With loaded magazine, on command fire 1 round in 2 seconds or fire 2 rounds in 3 seconds, make weapon safe, holster, repeat until 6 rounds have been fired.

1. On command draw and fire 2 rounds in 3 seconds, make weapon safe, holster, repeat until 6 rounds have been fired.

2. On command draw and fire 6 rounds strong hand and 6 rounds weak hand in 20 seconds for semi-auto and 30 seconds for revolver, make weapon safe and holster.

PHASE 2 -15 YARD LINE: Point Shoulder Position

1. On command draw and fire 1 round in 2 seconds or 2 rounds in 3 seconds, make weapon safe, holster, repeat until 6 rounds have been fired.

2. On command draw and fire 2 rounds in 3 seconds, holster and repeat until 6 rounds have been fired.

3. On command draw and fire 6 rounds in 12 seconds, make weapon safe and holster.

PHASE 3 - 25 YARD LINE: On command fire 6 rounds from prone, 6 rounds from kneeling and 6 rounds from standing until 18 rounds have been fired in 75 seconds for semi-auto, strong hand; for revolver,

90 seconds, strong hand. The order of position and use of cover/concealment and decocking is optional with the instructor.

SCORING - B21, B21X targets - use indicated K value with a maximum 300 points divided by 3 to obtain percent.

B27 target - 8,9,10,X rings = 5 points, 7 ring = 4 points, hits on silhouette = 3 points divided by 3 to obtain percent.

Q target - 5 points inside the bottle, 3 points outside the bottle on the target. Divide by 3 to obtain percent.

INSTRUCTOR’S DISCRETION TO USE PROPER VERBALIZATION WHEN CHALLENGING THE TARGET.

 

APPENDIX B

VIRGINIA MODIFIED COMBAT COURSE I

Targets - B21, B21X, B27, Q

60 ROUNDS, 25 - 7 YARDS

Qualification Score 70% Moving Course

Range instructor to determine when to load.

PHASE 1 - 3 Minute Course - at the 50 YARD LINE.

Officer/Deputy on command runs to the 25 YARD LINE, fires 12 rounds with strong hand kneeling, fires 12 rounds prone strong hand, 6 rounds standing strong hand, barricades may be used for cover/concealment.  Order of positions and use of cover/concealment and decocking is optional per instructor.

PHASE 2 - 1 Minute - at the 25 Yard Line:

Officer/Deputy on command runs to the 15 YARD LINE fires 12 rounds standing strong hand, reloads and fires 6 rounds kneeling.

PHASE 3 - 25 Seconds - at the 15 Yard Line:

Officer/Deputy on command runs to the 7 YARD LINE, fires 6 rounds strong hand and 6 rounds weak hand.

SCORING - B21, B21X, targets - used indicated K value with a maximum 300 points divided by 3 to obtain percent.

B27 targets - 8, 9,10, X rings = 5 points, 7 ring = 4 points, hits on silhouette = 3 points divided by 3 to obtain percent.

Q targets - 5 points inside the bottle, 3 points outside the bottle on the target. Divide by 3 to obtain percent.

INSTRUCTOR’S DISCRETION TO USE PROPER VERBALIZATION WHEN CHALLENGING THE TARGET.

 

APPENDIX C

VIRGINIA MODIFIED COMBAT COURSE II

FOR SEMI-AUTOMATIC PISTOLS AND REVOLVERS

Targets - B21, B21X, B27, Q

60 ROUNDS, 25 - 3 YARDS

Qualification Score 70% Moving Course

Range Instructor to determine when to load.

PHASE 1 - 90 seconds for REVOLVERS, 70 seconds FOR SEMI-AUTOMATICS - at the 50 Yard Line:

Officer/Deputy on command runs to the 25 YARD LINE and fires 6 rounds standing, fires 6 rounds from the prone and 6 rounds kneeling using strong hand. The order of positions and use of cover/concealment and decocking in between is optional with the instructor.

PHASE 2 - 30 seconds - at the 25 Yard Line:

Officer/Deputy on command runs to the 15 YARD LINE, fires 6 rounds standing, 6 rounds kneeling.

PHASE 3 - 25 seconds - at the 15 Yard Line:

Officer/Deputy on command runs to the 7 YARD LINE, fires 6 rounds strong hand and 6 rounds weak hand.

PHASE 4 - at the 5 Yard Line.

On command draw and fire 12 rounds in any sequence, i.e. 1 round, 2 rounds, 3 rounds or staggered sequence.

PHASE 5 - at the 1 or 2 Yard Line, hip shooting.

On command draw and fire 6 rounds in any sequence, i.e. 1 round, 2 rounds, 3 rounds or staggered.

SCORING - B21, B21X targets-use indicated K value with a maximum 300 points divided by 3 to obtain percent.

B27 targets - 8, 9, 10, X rings = 5 points, 7 ring = 4 points, hits on silhouette = 3 points divided by 3 to obtain percent.

Q targets - 5 points inside the bottle, 3 points outside the bottle on the target. Divide by 3 to obtain percent.

INSTRUCTOR’S DISCRETION TO USE PROPER VERBALIZATION WHEN CHALLENGING THE TARGET.

 

APPENDIX D

VIRGINIA QUALIFICATION COURSE I

FOR SEMI-AUTOMATIC PISTOLS AND REVOLVERS

Targets - B21, B21X, B27, Q

50 ROUNDS, 25 - 5 YARDS

Qualification Score 70%

PHASE 1 - At the 25 yard line, 75 seconds for pistols, 95 seconds for revolvers. 

On command with a fully loaded weapon fire 6 rounds prone, 6 rounds kneeling strong hand, 6 rounds standing strong hand. The order of the positions and use of cover/concealment and decocking in between is optional per instructor.

PHASE 2 - At the 25 Yard Line, 8 Seconds for pistol or revolver.

On command move to the 15 Yard Line, draw and fire 2 rounds and stay at cover down position.

PHASE 3 - Stay on the 15 Yard Line, 3 seconds for pistols or revolvers.

On command from cover down position fire 2 rounds, recover, maintain cover down position, repeat four times for 8 rounds.

PHASE 4 - 20 seconds for pistols, 25 seconds for revolvers.

At the 15 Yard Line on command move to the 7 Yard Line, draw and fire 12 rounds with a MANDATORY RELOAD.

PHASE 5 - 20 seconds for pistols, 25 seconds for revolvers

On command at the 7 YARD LINE move to the 5 Yard Line, draw and fire 5 rounds strong hand, Reload and fire 5 rounds weak hand.

SCORING - B21, B21X targets use indicated K value with a maximum 250 points multiplied by .4 to obtain percent.

B27 targets 8, 9,10, X rings = 5 points, 7 ring = 4 points, hits on silhouette = 3 points multiply by .4 to obtain percent.

Q targets 5 points inside the bottle, 3 points outside the bottle on the target, multiply by .4. to get percent.

INSTRUCTOR’S DISCRETION TO USE PROPER VERBALIZATION WHEN TO CHALLENGE THE TARGET.

 

APPENDIX E

VIRGINIA QUALIFICATION COURSE II

FOR SEMI-AUTOMATIC PISTOLS AND REVOLVERS

Targets - B21, B21X, B27, Q

60 Rounds, 3 - 25 YARDS

Qualification Score 70%

PHASE 1 - 20 seconds - at the 3 Yard Line, on command draw and fire 6 Rounds standing with strong hand, MAGAZINE CHANGE/RELOAD, Fire 6 rounds standing with weak hand.

PHASE 2 - at the 7 Yard Line, on command draw and fire 2 rounds in 3 seconds, holster, repeat until 12 rounds have been fired.

PHASE 3 - 10 seconds, at the 7 Yard Line, On command draw and fire 6 rounds kneeling.

PHASE 4 - 37 seconds, At the 15 Yard Line, on command fire 12 rounds standing, 6 rounds kneeling. SEMI-AUTOS must have MAGAZINE CHANGE.

ACADEMIES MUST CHOOSE ONE OF THE FOLLOWING PHASES FOR SCORING:

PHASE 5A - 45 seconds - at the 25 Yard Line, on command fire 12 rounds, 6 rounds kneeling using barricade and 6 rounds standing using barricade for cover.

OR

PHASE 5B - 25 YARD LINE60 seconds for pistols, 60 seconds for revolvers. On command, fire 4 shots standing strong side, 4 shots kneeling strong side, and 4 shots prone strong side.

SCORING - B21, B21X, targets - use indicated K value with a maximum 300 points divided by 3 to obtain percent.

B27 targets - 8, 9,10, X rings = 5 points, 7 ring = 4 points, hits on silhouette = 3 points divided by 3 to obtain percent.

Q targets - 5 points inside the bottle, 3 points out of the bottle on the target. Divide by 3 to obtain percent.

INSTRUCTOR’S DISCRETION WHEN TO HAVE OFFICER/DEPUTY TO USE PROPER VERBALIZATION TO CHALLENGE THE TARGET.

 

APPENDIX F

VIRGINIA TACTICAL QUALIFICATION COURSE I

FOR SEMI-AUTOMATIC PISTOLS AND REVOLVERS

Targets - B21, B21X, B27, Q

50 Rounds, 5/7 - 25 YARDS

Qualification Score 70%

Each officer/deputy restricted to number of magazines carried on duty. Magazines fully loaded. Instructor shall determine magazine changes.

PHASE 1 - At 5, 7 OR FRACTION THEREOF, point shoulder shooting, fire 2 rounds in 3 seconds for 12 rounds. After each two rounds, holster, repeat until 12 rounds have been fired.

1. On command draw and fire 6 rounds in 8 seconds, point shoulder position.

2. On command draw and fire 4 rounds in 8 seconds, strong hand only, point shoulder.

3. On command fire 4 rounds in 10 seconds, weak hand point shoulder.

PHASE 2 - At 15 Yard Line, point shoulder position

1. On command draw and fire 2 rounds in 3 seconds for 6 rounds. (Optional to holster after each 2 rounds)

2. On command draw and fire 6 rounds in 12 seconds.

ACADEMIES MUST CHOOSE ONE OF THE FOLLOWING PHASES FOR SCORING:

PHASE 3A - at 25 Yard Line, 45 seconds for pistols, 60 seconds for revolvers.

1. On command assume kneeling position, draw and fire 6 rounds behind a barricade.

2. Fire 6 rounds, strong hand standing barricade position.

PHASE 3B - at 25 Yard Line, 60 seconds for pistols, 60 seconds for revolvers. On command, fire 4 shots standing strong side, 4 shots kneeling strong side, and 4 shots prone strong side.

SCORING - B21, B21X targets - use indicated K value with a maximum 250 points multiply by .4 to obtain percent.

B27 targets - 8, 9,10,X rings = 5 points, 7 ring = 4 points, hits on silhouette = 3 points multiply by .4 to obtain percent.

Q targets - 5 points inside the bottle, 3 points out of the bottle on the target, multiply by .4 to obtain percent.

INSTRUCTOR’S DISCRETION WHEN TO HAVE OFFICER/DEPUTY USE PROPER VERBALIZATION TO CHALLENGE THE TARGET.

 

APPENDIX G

VIRGINIA TACTICAL QUALIFICATION COURSE II

FOR SEMI-AUTOMATIC PISTOLS AND REVOLVERS

Targets - B21, B21X, B27, Q

36 ROUNDS, 3 - 25 YARDS

Qualification Score 70%

Course begins with a charged and fully loaded weapon, all shots fired standing with strong hand, weapon at eye level with all shots placed high in the chest area unless directed otherwise by the instructor. Weapons WILL NOT BE holstered until the target has edged or whistle has blown. At the end of each phase of fire, a tactical/combat reload will be executed before holstering. If a reload is required it will be accomplished by using a combat or speed reloading technique.

Prior to the start of the course at the 7 YARD LINE, semi-auto pistol shooters will be advised to keep one magazine empty and load as directed by instructor in order to evaluate slide lock back, chamber empty and combat loads. Revolver shooters will have reload time increased by 2 seconds at all stages of fire.

PHASE 1 - At 3 Yard Line, on command draw and fire 2 rounds in 3 seconds, one round in the body, one round in the head or groin and holster. Repeat 3 more times until 8 rounds have been fired.

REVOLVER shooter will reload before firing last four rounds.

PHASE 2 - At 7 Yard Line, (Prior to firing this stage, pistol shooters will be directed to do an in holster magazine exchange placing a magazine with 2 rounds in the pistol). On command draw and fire 2 rounds strong hand, execute a combat or speed reload, transfers weapon to weak hand and fires 1 additional round in 10 seconds. Weapon remains out held in weak hand only and on command fires 3 rounds in 3 seconds and safely holsters. Total rounds fired 6.

PHASE 3 - At 7 Yard Line, draw and fire 4 rounds in 5 seconds and safely holster. Repeat again for a total of 8 rounds. (Revolvers, top off cylinder before firing last 4 rounds).

PHASE 4 - At 15 Yard Line, standing, draw weapon to READY GUN and wait command to fire. On command fire 2 rounds in 3 seconds, return to READY GUN. On command fire 2 rounds, execute a combat or speed reload fire 2 additional rounds and return to READY GUN.

12 SECONDS allotted to fire rounds 3 & 4, reload and fire 2 additional rounds. On command fire 2 rounds in 3 seconds, safely holster. Total rounds fired 8.

PHASE 5 - AT 25 Yard Line, Shooter stands beside cover (barricade), On command retreats behind cover, draws on the move and from behind cover, assumes strong side kneeling position, leans out from behind the cover, fires 2 rounds strong side kneeling in 12 seconds and holsters.

Shooter stands beside cover (barricade) and on command shooter retreats behind cover and assumes strong side standing position, leans out from behind cover and fires 2 rounds, strong side standing in 12 seconds and holsters.

Shooter again retreats behind cover, assumes weak side standing position, leans out from behind cover and fire 2 rounds weak side standing and holsters.

WHEN SHOOTER RETREATS BEHIND COVER, ALL WEAPONS WILL BE DECOCKED AND TRIGGER FINGER PLACED OUTSIDE AND ABOVE THE TRIGGER GUARD. FAILURE TO DO SO IS A SAFETY VIOLATION AND NONE OF THE ROUNDS FIRED WILL BE SCORED. This course of fire is to teach looking for and moving to cover.

SCORING - B21, B21X, B27 targets - used indicated K value with a maximum 180 points divide by 1.8 to obtain percent.

B27 target - 8, 9, 10, X rings = 5 points, 7 rings = 4 points, hits on silhouette = 3 points, divide by 1.8 to obtain percent.

Q targets - 5 points inside the bottle, 3 points out of the bottle and on the target divide by 1.8 to obtain percent.

INSTRUCTOR’S DISCRETION WHEN TO HAVE OFFICER/DEPUTY USE PROPER VERBALIZATION TO CHALLENGE THE TARGET.

 

APPENDIX H

VIRGINIA TACTICAL QUALIFICATION COURSE III

FOR SEMI-AUTOMATIC PISTOLS

Targets-B21, B21x, B27, Q – 99

50 ROUNDS, 1/3-25 YARDS

Qualification Score 70%

Each officer/deputy restricted to number of magazines carried on duty.  Magazines may be partially loaded during course of fire to induce a malfunction at instructor’s discretion. Instructor may determine magazine exchanges.  Course may be run from the 25 to the 1/3 yard line, or 1/3 yard line to the 25 yard line.  Lateral, fore or aft movement during any phase at the instructor’s discretion.

Phase 1-At the 25 Yard Line, for a total of 6 rounds.

On command, draw and fire 3 rounds standing, and 3 rounds kneeling in 25 seconds.  (Option use barricade or simulated cover)

Phase 2-At the 15 Yard Line, for a total of 6 rounds. 

On command, draw and fire 2 rounds in 4 seconds. (3x for total of 6 rounds) (Option, shoot then step laterally)

Phase 3-At the 7 Yard Line, for a total of 6 rounds. 

On command, draw and fire 2 rounds in 3 seconds. (3x for total of 6 rounds)  (Option, step laterally as you draw)

Use either 4a or 4b

Phase 4a-At the 7 Yard Line, for a total of 12 rounds. 

On command, draw and fire 6 rounds, perform a reload, then fire an additional 6 rounds in 12 seconds. (Option, step laterally while reloading)

Phase 4b-At the 7 Yard Line, for a total of 12 rounds. 

On command, draw as you move to the 5 yard line, 

1. Fire 2 rounds in 3 seconds, (3x for total of 6 rounds)

2. Fire 6 rounds in 6 seconds.

Phase 5-At the 5 Yard Line, for a total of 14 rounds, on command, draw and fire  (Option, step laterally as you draw)

1. 2 Rounds in 3 seconds (3x for total of 6 rounds)

2. 4 Rounds in 6 seconds, strong hand only

3. 4Rounds in 8 seconds, weak hand only.

Phase 6-At the 1-3 Yard Line, for a total of 6 rounds. 

On command, draw and fire 3 rounds in 3 seconds using close quarter/hip technique. (Option, shove and shoot and/or 1-2 steps to the rear after shooting)

SCORING- B21, B21x targets-use indicated K value with maximum 25 points multiplied by .4 to obtain percent.

B27 targets-8, 9, 10, X rings=5 points, 7 ring=4 points, hits on silhouette=3 points multiply by .4 to obtain percent.

Q targets-5 points inside the bottle, 3 points outside the bottle on target multiply by .4 to get percent.

INSTRUCTOR’S DISCRETION WHEN TO HAVE OFFICER/DEPUTY USE PROPER VERBALIZATION TO CHALLENGE THE TARGET.

 

APPENDIX I

VIRGINIA TACTICAL QUALIFICATION COURSE IV

FOR SEMI-AUTOMATIC PISTOLS

Targets-B21, B21x, B27, Q

60 ROUNDS, 1/3-25 YARDS

Qualification Score 70%

Each officer/deputy restricted to number of magazines carried on duty.  25 yard line phase calls for rounds fired from 2 different positions (chosen from standing, kneeling, prone) for a total of 12 rounds.  Mandated reloads or staging magazines to induce a malfunction at the instructor’s discretion.  When utilizing barricade or simulated cover position, Instructor option to begin behind cover or seek cover to begin phase. (Example: Shooter draws as he/ she steps behind cover)  Close quarter/hip shooting portion can be run from three yards and in, utilizing close quarter shooting techniques.  Lateral movement during draw or after shots may be introduced during any phase of fire at the instructor’s discretion.  Instructor option to substitute 5 Yard line stage with: draw and fire 4 rounds strong hand, safely transfer weapon to weak hand and immediately fire 4 rounds weak hand in 10 sec.

Phase 1-At the 25 Yard Line, for a total of 12 rounds.

On command, draw and fire 6 rounds from position 1; from position 2, fire 6 rounds in 45 seconds behind cover.

Phase 2-At the 15 Yard Line, for a total of 18 rounds.  (Option for lateral movement)

1. On command, draw and fire 2 rounds in 4 seconds (3x for total of 6 rounds)

2. On command, draw and fire 6 rounds, combat reload, then fire 6 more rounds in 25 seconds.

Phase 3-At the 10 Yard Line, for a total of 6 rounds.  (Option for lateral movement)

1. On command, draw and fire 2 rounds in 3 seconds, then go to ready gun.

2. From ready gun, on command, fire 2 rounds in 3 seconds.

3. From ready gun, on command, fire 2 rounds in 3 seconds.

Phase 4-At the 7 Yard Line, for a total of 12 rounds.  (Option for lateral movement)

1. On command, draw and fire 2 rounds in 3 seconds.

2. On command, draw and fire 2 rounds in 3 seconds.

3. On command, draw and fire 2 rounds in 3 seconds.

4. On command, draw and fire 3 rounds in 4 seconds.

5. On command, draw and fire 3 rounds in 4 seconds.

Use either 5a or 5b

Phase 5a-At the 5 Yard Line, for a total of 8 rounds.  (Option for lateral movement)

1. On command, draw and fire 4 rounds in 6 seconds, strong hand only then assess, scan and holster.

2. On command, draw and fire 4 rounds in 8 seconds, weak hand only. Reload and holster.

Phase 5b-At the 5 Yard Line, for a total of 8 rounds. 

On command, draw and fire 4 rounds strong hand only, safely transfer to weak hand, then fire 4 more rounds weak hand only in 10 seconds.

Phase 6-At the 3 Yard Line or Closer, for a total of 4 rounds. 

1. On command, draw and fire using close quarter/hip technique 2 rounds in 3 seconds. (Option, shove and shoot and/or 1-2 steps to the rear after shooting).

2. On command, draw and fire using close quarter/hip technique 2 rounds in 3 seconds. (Option, shove and shoot and/or 1-2 steps to the rear after shooting).

SCORING-B21, B21x targets-use indicated K value with maximum 300 points divided by 3 to obtain percent.

B27 target-8, 9, 10, X rings=5 points, 7 ring=4 points, hits on silhouette=3 points divided by 3 to obtain percent.

Q target-5 points inside the bottle, 3 points outside the bottle on target, divide by 3 to get percent.

INSTRUCTOR’S DISCRETION WHEN TO HAVE OFFICER/DEPUTY USE PROPER VERBALIZATION TO CHALLENGE THE TARGET.

 

APPENDIX J

VIRGINIA TACTICAL QUALIFICATION COURSE V

FOR SEMI-AUTOMATIC PISTOLS

Targets-B21, B21x, B27, Q

50 ROUNDS, 1/3-25 YARDS

Qualification Score 70%

Each officer/deputy restricted to number of magazines carried on duty 25 yard line calls for rounds fired from 2 different positions (chosen from standing, kneeling, prone) for a total of 6 rounds. (Example: 3 standing and 3 kneeling)  Mandated reloads or staging magazines to induce a malfunction/reload at instructor’s discretion.  When utilizing barricade or simulated cover position, instructor option to begin behind cover or seek cover to begin phase. (Example: Shooter draws as he/she steps behind cover)  Lateral movement during draw or after shots may be introduced during any phase of fire at the instructor’s discretion.  Close quarter/hip shooting portion can be run from three yards and in, utilizing close quarters shooting techniques.  Instructor option to substitute 5 yard line stage with: draw and fire 4 rounds strong hand only, safely transfer weapon to weak hand and immediately fire 4 rounds weak hand only in 12 sec.

Phase 1-At the 25 Yard Line, for a total of 6 rounds. 

On command, draw and fire 3 rounds from position 1; from position 2, fire 3 rounds in 25 seconds behind cover.

Phase 2-At the 15 Yard Line, for a total of 12 rounds. 

1. Have shooters draw to Ready Gun position. On command fire 2 rounds in 3 seconds, assess, scan and return to Ready Gun. Repeat two (2) more times for a total of 6 rounds. Reload and holster.

2. On command, draw and fire 6 rounds in 12 seconds. Assess, scan and holster.

Phase 3-At the 10 Yard Line, for a total of 12 rounds. 

On command, draw and fire 6 rounds, reload, and immediately fire 6 more rounds in 20 seconds.

Phase 4-At the 7 Yard Line, for a total of 6 rounds. 

On command, draw and fire 2 rounds in 3 seconds.  Repeat 2 more times for a total of 6 rounds.

Use either 5a or 5b

Phase 5a-At the 5 Yard Line, for a total of 8 rounds. 

1. On command, draw and fire 4 rounds in 6 seconds strong hand only, assess, scan and holster.

2. On command, draw and fire 4 rounds in 8 seconds weak hand only.

Phase 5b-At the 5 Yard Line, for a total of 8 rounds. 

On command, draw and fire 4 rounds strong hand only, safely transfer weapon to weak hand, and immediately fire 4 rounds weak hand only in 12 seconds.

Phase 6-At the 3 Yard Line or Closer, for a total of 6 rounds. 

On command, draw and fire using close quarter/hip technique 3 rounds in 4 seconds. Repeat again for a total of 6 rounds. (Option shove and shoot and/or 1-2 steps to the rear after shooting.)

SCORING-B21, B21x targets-use indicated K value with maximum 250 points multiplied by .4 to obtain percent.

B27 target-8, 9, 10, X rings=5 points, 7 ring=4 points, hits on silhouette=3 points multiply by .4 to obtain percent.

Q target-5 points inside the bottle, 3 points outside the bottle on target, multiply by .4 to get percent.

INSTRUCTOR’S DISCRETION WHEN TO HAVE OFFICER/DEPUTY USE PROPER VERBALIZATION TO CHALLENGE THE TARGET.

bscharf

Driver Training

Driver Training

Performance Outcome 8.1.

Identify factors to consider when engaging in pursuit driving or emergency response driving.

Training Objectives Related to 8.1.

1. Given a written exercise, identify factors to consider when engaging in pursuit driving or emergency response driving.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

8.1.1. Identify five factors to be considered when making a decision to initiate a pursuit.

8.1.2. Identify five common hazards associated with pursuit or emergency response driving in a congested area or on an open road.

8.1.3. Identify factors that impact terminating a vehicle pursuit.

8.1.4. Identify legal considerations for emergency response driving.

8.1.4.1. Code of Virginia

8.1.4.2. Case law

8.1.4.3. Department policy (department training)

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Factors to be considered when making a decision to initiate a pursuit:

a. Priorities for the seriousness of the violation

b. Congested area

c. Open road

d. Environmental conditions

e. Speed of other vehicles

2. Common hazards associated with pursuit or emergency response driving in a congested area or on an open road:

a. Children

b. Walkers

c. Skateboarders

d. In-line skaters

e. Bicyclists

f. Cars

g. Buses

h. Mopeds

i. Trains

j. Hazards of proceeding through intersections

3. Factors that impact terminating a vehicle pursuit

4. Legal considerations for emergency response driving

a. Code of Virginia

b. Case law

c. Department policy (department training)

Performance Outcome 8.2.

Recover from high speed response driving and pursuit driving off road at various speeds.

Training Objectives Related to 8.2.

1. Identify and/or demonstrate the techniques for recovery from high speed response driving and pursuit driving off road at various speeds during a written or practical exercise.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

8.2.1. The techniques in correct order for recovery for two wheels off road to four wheels on road.

8.2.2. The techniques for four wheels off road to four wheels on road.

8.2.3. The areas of reduced traction.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. The techniques in correct order for recovery for two wheels off road to four wheels on road.

2. The techniques for four wheels off road to four wheels on road.

3. The areas of reduced traction.

Performance Outcome 8.3.

Demonstrate the techniques of pursuit driving and emergency response driving on an open road.

Training Objectives Related to 8.3.

1. Given a written exercise, identify the factors to consider for pursuit and response driving on an open road.

2. Given a practical exercise, demonstrate proper techniques used during various driving.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

Written exercise:

8.3.1. “Due regard for safety”

8.3.2. The psychological factors that affect the driver in high speed response driving

8.3.2.1. Stress involved with lengthy high speed pursuit

8.3.2.2. Managing lengthy high speed chases

8.3.3. The physiological factors that affect the driver in high speed driving of a law enforcement vehicle (effect of speed on observation and perception)

8.3.4. The Code of Virginia statutes pertaining to the operation of an emergency vehicle

8.3.5. The Code of Virginia statutes pertaining to emergency equipment and other permissible lights

8.3.6. The effect of the laws of nature on a vehicle

8.3.7. The importance of traction and the effect the tires have on maintaining proper traction

8.3.8. The relevance of converting miles per hour (mph) into feet per second (ft./sec.)

8.3.9. The effect that speed has on the kinetic energy produced by a vehicle

8.3.10. The vehicle dynamics and changes in weight transfer of a vehicle in high speed driving

8.3.11. The legal aspects (civil liability) and use of force considerations of vehicle operations especially in emergency operations of a vehicle

Practical exercise:

8.3.12. Steering techniques

8.3.13. Braking techniques (with or without ABS)

8.3.14. Cornering techniques

8.3.15. Emergency equipment usage

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. The techniques of pursuit and response driving on an open road:

a. “Due regard for safety”

b. The psychological factors that affect the driver in high speed response driving

1. Stress involved with lengthy high speed pursuit

2. Managing lengthy high speed chases

c. The physiological factors that affect the driver in high speed driving of a law enforcement vehicle (effect of speed on observation and perception)

d. The Code of Virginia statutes pertaining to the operation of an emergency vehicle

e. The Code of Virginia statutes pertaining to emergency equipment and other permissible lights

Note: Emergency vehicles and their operators are not exempt from stopping for stopped school buses.

f. The effect of the laws of nature on a vehicle

g. The importance of traction and the effect the tires have on maintaining proper traction

h. The relevance of converting miles per hour (mph) into feet per second (ft./sec.)

i. The effect that speed has on the kinetic energy produced by a vehicle

j. The vehicle dynamics and changes in weight transfer of a vehicle in high speed driving

k. The legal aspects (civil liability) and use of force considerations of vehicle operations especially in emergency operations of a vehicle

2. Demonstrate proper techniques used during various driving

a. Steering techniques

b. Braking techniques (with or without ABS)

c. Cornering techniques

d. Emergency equipment usage

Performance Outcome 8.4.

Control vehicle on various road surfaces and conditions.

Training Objectives Related to 8.4.

1. Given a written or practical exercise, identify or demonstrate methods of control of a patrol vehicle while driving on wet, icy, snow covered pavement, dirt or loose gravel road, or skidpan.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

8.4.1. Skid control techniques

8.4.2. Braking control techniques

8.4.3. Steering control techniques

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Skid control techniques

2. Braking control techniques

3. Steering control techniques

Performance Outcome 8.5.

Operate a patrol vehicle

Training Objectives Related to 8.5.

1. Given a written exercise, identify factors to consider related to the operation of a patrol vehicle.

2. Given a practical exercise, demonstrate operation of a patrol vehicle.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

Given a written exercise:

8.5.1. Identify the three components of defensive driving and their effect on vehicle accidents.

8.5.1.1. Driver

8.5.1.2. Vehicle

8.5.1.3. Environment

8.5.2. Identify the five steps of defensive driving

8.5.2.1. Scan

8.5.2.2. Identify

8.5.2.3. Predict

8.5.2.4. Decide

8.5.2.5. Execute

8.5.3. Identify driving movements which most frequently contribute to vehicle accidents.

8.5.4. Identify factors that contribute to the effective use of a police radio.

8.5.5. Identify the importance of seat belts, air bags, and other vehicle safety devices.

8.5.6. Identify the different characteristics of night driving to daytime driving and how the human eye is affected.

8.5.7. Identify factors that influence the overall stopping distance of a vehicle.

8.5.8. Identify the effect speed on observation and perception during patrol.

8.5.9. Identify causes and steps to correct skids.

8.5.10. Identify liability issues related to operating a patrol vehicle.

Given a practical exercise:

8.5.11. Demonstrate a physical and visual inspection of a law enforcement vehicle.

8.5.12. Demonstrate the proper usage of a safety belt in the operation of law enforcement vehicle.

8.5.13. Demonstrate the proper techniques of acceptable steering methods.

8.5.13.1. Hand position on the steering wheel

8.5.13.2. Shuffle steering

8.5.14. Demonstrate the proper techniques in braking (with or without ABS)

8.5.14.1. Heat/cool

8.5.14.2. Threshold

8.5.14.3. Anti-lock braking systems

8.5.15. Demonstrate the proper techniques in backing a vehicle.

8.5.16. Demonstrate control a vehicle using acceptable techniques in the following vehicle movements:

8.5.16.1. Parking

8.5.16.2. “Y” turn

8.5.16.3. Backing

8.5.17. Operate a law enforcement vehicle in night conditions.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. The components of a physical and visual inspection of a law enforcement vehicle

2. The three components of defensive driving and their effect on vehicle accidents.

a. Driver

b. Vehicle

c. Environment

3. The five steps of defensive driving

a. Scan

b. Identify

c. Predict

d. Decide

e. Execute

4. Driving movements which most frequently contribute to vehicle accidents

5. Factors that contribute to the effective use of a police radio

6. The importance of seat belts, air bags, and other vehicle safety devices

7. The different characteristics of night driving to daytime driving and how the human eye is affected

8. Factors that influence the overall stopping distance of a vehicle

9. The effect speed on observation and perception during patrol

10. Causes and steps to correct skids

11. Liability issues related to operating a patrol vehicle

            Practice:

            a. Demonstration of a physical and visual inspection of a law enforcement vehicle

            b. Demonstration of the proper usage of a safety belt in the operation of law enforcement vehicle

            c. Demonstration of the proper techniques of acceptable steering methods

1.  Hand position on the steering wheel

2.  Shuffle steering

            e. Demonstration of the proper techniques in braking (with or without ABS)

1. Heat/cool

2. Threshold

3 Anti-lock braking systems

            f. Demonstration of the proper techniques in backing a vehicle

            g. Demonstration of the control a vehicle using acceptable techniques in the following vehicle movements:

1. Parking

2. “Y” turn

3. Backing

          h. Operation of a law enforcement vehicle in night conditions

Instructor Note: Advise trainees that they will need to identify department policy related to use of patrol vehicles as part of department training.

Performance Outcome 8.6.

Demonstrate physical skills needed to operate a patrol vehicle.

Training Objective Related to 8.6.

1. Given a physical exercise, demonstrate physical skills required to properly operate a patrol vehicle.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

8.6.1. One and two-hand gripping of steering wheel

8.6.2. Leg/brake coordination for safe stopping of vehicle at varying speeds

8.6.3. Hand/eye coordination to operate radio communication/seatbelt removal/drawing weapon if needed

8.6.4. Lift feet interchangeably to use brake and accelerator or shift gears

8.6.5. Hear/speak with clarity for radio communications

8.6.6. Rotate shoulders to permit observation to sides and rear as needed

8.6.7. Bend to get in and out of car

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. One and two-hand gripping of steering wheel

2. Leg/brake coordination for safe stopping of vehicle at varying speeds

3. Hand/eye coordination to operate radio communication/seatbelt removal/drawing weapon if needed

4. Lifting feet interchangeably to use brake and accelerator or shift gears

5. Hearing/speaking with clarity for radio communications

6. Rotating shoulders to permit observation to sides and rear as needed

7. Bending to get in and out of car

Performance Outcome 8.7.

Establish a stationary roadblock using a patrol vehicle to assist in apprehending a suspect.

Training Objective Related to 8.7.

1. Given a written exercise, identify factors to consider when establishing a stationary roadblock using a patrol vehicle.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

8.7.1. Nature/severity of crime

8.7.2. Location

8.7.3. Terrain

8.7.4. Number of officers/vehicles available

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Nature/severity of crime

2. Location (least amount of risk to public)

3. Terrain

4. Number of officers/vehicles available

5. Choose a level surface

6. Do not use curves, hill crests, or blind spots

7. As the driver, place the patrol vehicle at a 45 degree angle to the oncoming car.

8. If using two patrol vehicles, form a V.

Instructor Note: Advise trainees that they will need to identify department policy related to establishing stationary roadblocks as part of their department training.

bscharf

Physical Training (Optional)

Physical Training (Optional)

Performance Outcome 9.1.

Crawl under an obstacle.

Training Objectives Related to 9.1.

1 Given a physical exercise, demonstrate ability to crawl under an obstacle.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

9.1.1. Crawl under an obstacle of 24 inches or less for 10 feet without becoming caught or injured.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Technique for low crawl

Performance Outcome 9.2.

Sprint at full speed for a distance of 50 yards.

Training Objective Related to 9.2.

1. Given a physical exercise, sprint at full speed for a distance of 50 yards.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

9.2.1. Response to a visual cue

9.2.2. Body position for sprinting

9.2.3. Breathing techniques

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Body position for sprinting

2. Breathing techniques

3. Warm-up during training

Performance Outcome 9.3.

Run a distance of 1/2 mile.

Training Objectives Related to 9.3.

1. Given a physical exercise, run a distance of 1/2 mile using techniques to help minimize injury.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

9.3.1. Running positions

9.3.2. Breathing techniques for running

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Running positions to minimize injury potential

2. Breathing techniques for running

3. Warm-up for running

Performance Outcome 9.4.

Run a course through varying terrain.

Training Objectives Related to 9.4.

1. Given a physical exercise, run a course through varying terrain appropriate to locality.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

9.4.1. Complete an obstacle course representing various terrain while running, jumping, turning, and crawling.

9.4.1.1. Run at least 1/2 mile during the course

9.4.1.2. Jump over a 3 foot ditch or similar obstacle

9.4.1.3. Vault over three different types of obstacles typical of the locale

9.4.1.4. Crawl under an obstacle of 24 inches in height for at least 10 feet

9.4.1.5. Turn three times during the course

9.4.2. Use of breathing techniques appropriate to each type of physical effort.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Techniques for running, jumping, turning, and crawling as part of obstacle course training.

a. Run at least 1/2 mile during the course

b. Jump over a 3 foot ditch or similar obstacle

c. Vault over three different types of obstacles typical of the locale

d. Crawl under an obstacle of 24 inches in height for at least 10 feet

e. Turn three times during the course

2. Breathing techniques appropriate to each type of physical effort.

Performance Outcome 9.5.

Climb four flights of stairs.

Training Objectives Related to 9.5.

1. Given a physical exercise, climb four flights of stairs.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

9.5.1. Climbing techniques

9.5.2. Breathing techniques

9.5.3. Leg strength development

9.5.4. Aerobic endurance

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Climbing techniques

2. Breathing techniques

3. Leg strength development

4. Aerobic endurance

Instructor Note: This exercise may be completed by using one flight of at least thirteen (13) steps and climbing up and down four times, or any other combination that equals this. Climbing single steps do not equal a flight of steps.

Performance Outcome 9.6.

Extend arm to reach and search tight spaces.

Training Objectives Related to 9.6.

1. Given a physical exercise, demonstrate ability to extend arm to reach and search tight spaces.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

9.6.1. Arm extension to avoid injury to muscles of upper back and shoulder

9.6.2. Range of motion for shoulder rotation

9.6.3. Flexibility

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Arm extension to avoid injury to muscles of upper back and shoulder

2. Range of motion for shoulder rotation

3. Flexibility

Performance Outcome 9.7.

Assist person to prevent falling, move to a place of safety and support person to a safe position.

Training Objectives Related to 9. 7.

1. Given a physical exercise, assist person to prevent falling, move to a place of safety and support person to a safe position.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

9.7.1. Protect head and shoulders of person to the extent possible

9.7.2. Use upper body strength

9.7.3. Use torso/trunk strength (back and abdominal)

9.7.4. Use base strength (hip and legs)

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Protecting head and shoulders of person to the extent possible

2. Use of upper body strength

3. Use of torso/trunk strength (back and abdomen)

4. Use of base strength (hip and legs)

Performance Outcome 9.8.

Hold flashlight in various positions while performing various law enforcement duties.

Training Objectives Related to 9.8.

1. Given a physical exercise, hold flashlight in various positions while performing various law enforcement duties.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

9.8.1. Grip strength

9.8.2. Range of motion

9.8.3. Shoulder flexibility

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Grip strength

2. Range of motion

3. Shoulder flexibility

Performance Outcome 9.9.

Push open an unlocked door that is partially blocked with shoulder/arm movement to gain entry using techniques to help minimize injury.

Training Objectives Related to 9.9.

1. Given a physical exercise, push open an unlocked door that is partially blocked with shoulder/arm movement to gain entry using techniques to help minimize injury.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

9.9.1. Push against a door with 26 - 50 pounds of resistance

9.9.1.1. Facing door, use shoulder/arm movement with legs to assist

9.9.1.2. Sideways to door, use shoulder/arm movement with legs to assist

9.9.1.3. Back to door, use shoulder/arm movement with legs to assist

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Techniques for pushing against a door with 26 - 50 pounds of resistance

a. Facing door, use shoulder/arm movement with legs to assist

b. Sideways to door, use shoulder/arm movement with legs to assist

c. Back to door, use shoulder/arm movement with legs to assist

Performance Outcome 9.10.

Kick open a door using techniques to help minimize injury.

Training Objectives Related to 9.10.

1. Given a physical exercise, identify places on a door to aim a kick and simulate the kicking open of a door to gain entry while using techniques for kicking that will help to minimize injury.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

9.10.1. Places on door to aim the kick

9.10.2. Technique using a good base for a front kick

9.10.3. Technique using a good base for a back kick

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Places on door to aim the kick

2. Technique using a good base for a front kick

3. Technique using a good base for a back kick

Performance Outcome 9.11.

Climb up and down 8 feet on a vertical ladder using techniques to help minimize injury.

Training Objectives Related to 9.11.

1. Given a physical exercise, climb up and down 8 feet on a vertical ladder using techniques to help minimize injury.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

9.11.1. Body positions for ascending and descending

9.11.2. Maintaining contact of ladder against object to climb

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Body positions for ascending and descending

2. Maintaining contact of ladder against object to climb

Performance Outcomes 9.12.

Jump down without use of hands from a height of 2 feet and drop down with use of hands from a height of 4 feet using techniques to help minimize injury.

Training Objectives Related to 9.12.

1. Given a physical exercise, jump down without use of hands from a height of 2 feet and drop down with use of hands from a height of 4 feet using techniques to help minimize injury.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

9.12.1. Jump down without use of hands from a height of 2 feet using techniques to help minimize injury.

9.12.2. Drop down with use of hands from a height of 4 feet using techniques to help minimize injury.

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Jump down without use of hands from a height of 2 feet using techniques to help minimize injury.

a. Technique for starting and landing a jump

b. Technique for falling if landing off balance

2. Drop down with use of hands from a height of 4 feet using techniques to help minimize injury.

a. Technique for using hands to drop down from a height

b. Technique for falling if landing off balance

Performance Outcome 9.13.

Cross over a fence of a minimum of 4 feet or according to heights permitted by local ordinance; jump or vault over obstacles of various heights using techniques to help minimize injury.

Training Objective Related to 9.13.

Given a physical exercise:

1. Cross over a fence of a minimum of 4 feet or according to heights permitted by local ordinance using techniques to help minimize injury.

2. Jump or vault over a fence, wall, or other barrier of 4 feet in height while using hands and techniques to help minimize injury.

3. Vault over obstacles typical of a work environment of 30 inches in height while running using techniques to help minimize injury.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

9.13.1. Techniques suitable to crossing various types of fences for climbing, jumping, or vaulting

9.13.2. Positioning hands and feet

9.13.3. Body positions for take off

9.13.4. Body positions for landing

9.13.5. Body position going over fence

9.13.6. Falling position if landing off balance

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Techniques suitable to crossing various types of fences for climbing, jumping or vaulting

a. Chain link

b. Brick

c. Wood

d. Others as may be identified

2. Positioning hands and feet

3. Body positions for take off

4. Body positions for landing

5. Body position going over fence

6. Falling position if landing off balance

Performance Outcomes 9.14.

Climb through a window or other similar opening using techniques to minimize injury.

Training Objectives Related to 9.14.

1. Given a physical exercise, climb or hoist self up at least 3 feet from ground level and go through an opening of 36” wide and 27” in height and down the other side of the opening using techniques to minimize injury.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

9.14.1. Body position for ascending

9.14.2. Body position for passing through opening

9.14.3. Body position for descending

Lesson Plan Guide: The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Body position for ascending

2. Body position for passing through opening

3. Body position for descending

Performance Outcome 9.15.

Drag or push a heavy object other than a vehicle or, when necessary, extract a person from a vehicle to effect a rescue.

Training Objectives Related to 9.15.

1. Given a physical exercise, extract a 125 pound object from a vehicle to simulate effecting a rescue, and drag or push a heavy object other than a vehicle weighing 125 pounds for a distance of 25 feet.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

9.15.1. Body alignment

9.15.2. Breathing techniques

9.15.3. Various types of surfaces

9.15.4. Lifting technique for up to 125 pounds and 25 foot distance

9.15.5. Carrying technique for humans, animals, and inanimate objects

9.15.6. Dragging technique for up to 125 pounds and 25 foot distance.

9.15.7. Pushing technique for up to 125 pounds and 25 foot distance.

9.15.8. Bend, reach, grab hold of person at point most helpful to extraction from a vehicle under prevailing conditions using proper body mechanics

Lesson Plan Guide:

The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Body alignment

2. Breathing techniques

3. Various types of surfaces

a. Concrete

b. Grass

c. Asphalt

d. Indoor tile

4. Lifting technique for up to 125 pounds and 25 foot distance

5. Carrying technique(s) for up to 125 pounds and 25 foot distance

6. Dragging technique for up to 125 pounds and 25 foot distance

7. Pushing technique for up to 125 pounds and 25 foot distance

8. Bend, reach, grab hold of person at point most helpful to extraction from a vehicle under prevailing conditions using proper body mechanics

Performance Outcome 9.16.

Push a motor vehicle by yourself out of a lane of traffic at least 25 feet using techniques to minimize injury.

Training Objectives Related to 9.16.

A1. Given a physical exercise, push a motor vehicle by yourself out of a lane of traffic at least 25 feet using techniques to minimize injury.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

9.16.1. Evaluation of scene

9.16.2. Control of traffic

9.16.3. Gear placement to move car

9.16.4. Steering needs

9.16.5. Simulate various road conditions

9.16.6. Body alignment

9.16.7. Breathing technique

Lesson Plan Guide:

The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Evaluation of scene

2. Control of traffic

3. Gear placement to move car

4. Steering needs

5. Simulate various road conditions

a. Dry

b. Wet

c. Icy

6. Body alignment

7. Breathing technique

Instructor Note: Techniques for pushing vehicles are taught in order that an officer may do so in a manner to minimize injury should exigent circumstances require this task of the officer.  In ordinary circumstances, the officer will wait for a car with push bars or a tow truck.  Advise trainees that they will also need to identify department policy related to pushing vehicles as part of their department training.

Performance Outcome 9.17.

Push a motor vehicle with another person out of a lane of traffic at least 25 feet using techniques to minimize injury.

Training Objectives Related to 9.17.

1. Given a physical exercise, push a motor vehicle with another person out of a lane of traffic at least 25 feet using techniques to injury.

Criteria: The trainee shall be tested on the following:

9.17.1. Evaluation of scene

9.17.2. Control of traffic

9.17.3. Placement of each person moving car

9.17.4. Gear placement to move car

9.17.5. Steering needs

9.17.6. Simulate various road conditions

9.17.7. Body alignment

9.17.8. Breathing technique

Lesson Plan Guide:

The lesson plan shall include the following:

1. Evaluation of scene

2. Control of traffic

3. Placement of each person moving car

4. Gear placement to move car

5. Steering needs

6. Various road conditions

a. Dry

b. Wet

c. Icy

7. Body alignment

8. Breathing technique

Instructor Note: Techniques for pushing vehicles are taught in order that an officer may do so in a manner to minimize injury should exigent circumstances require this task of the officer. In ordinary circumstances, the officer will wait for a car with push bars or a tow truck. Advise trainees that they will also need to identify department policy related to pushing vehicles as part of their department training.

bscharf