General Information & Research

The resources listed below are general materials for organizations and individuals seeking information about human trafficking and how to combat it. They were gathered from international, federal and state government agencies and organizations, as well as from private non-profit organizations, that deal with human trafficking.

Included in the resources below are several comprehensive plans addressing human trafficking that were developed by other states including California, Florida, Minnesota and Texas. Although these plans were developed to meet the specific conditions and needs of these states, they offer insight into how states are addressing human trafficking and may suggest ideas and approaches to inform Virginia's anti-human trafficking efforts.

This page includes links to various websites and documents which may be useful to those involved in identifying, investigating, and prosecuting human trafficking and serving victims. Users are advised that these documents and websites are identified for informational purposes and that the information and opinions presented within each are the responsibility of the authors and do not represent official positions or policies of the Department of Criminal Justice Services.

A GUIDE FOR LEGAL ADVOCATES PROVIDING SERVICES TO VICTIMS OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING (Source: US Conference of Catholic Bishops' Migration and the Legal Aid Foundation of Los Angeles)
A very extensive guide on legal issues and services concerning human trafficking. The guide contains an extensive list of additional resources for legal action and services for trafficking victims.


(Source: U.S. Department of Justice, Office for Victims of Crime and Bureau of Justice Assistance)

This online guide is intended to assist in the development or reorganization of an anti-human trafficking Task Force and to provide fundamental guidance for effective Task Force operations. The Task Force concept used in this guide is based upon the Department of Justice Anti-Trafficking Task Force model, which emphasizes a multidisciplinary, collaborative effort of law enforcement officials and victim service providers. The goal is to provide the broadest range of services and resources for victims and the most diverse range of investigation and prosecution options in response to perpetrators.


CHARACTERISTICS OF SUSPECTED HUMAN TRAFFICKING INCIDENTS, 2008-1010 (Source: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics)
This report describes the characteristics of human trafficking investigations, suspects, and victims in cases opened by federally funded task forces between January 2008 and June 2010. This report provides information about investigations, persons involved in suspected and confirmed incidents of human trafficking, and case outcomes.


CIVIL LITIGATION ON BEHALF OF VICTIMS OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING (Source: Immigrant Justice Project, Southern Poverty Law Center)
This report introduces attorneys representing trafficked clients to basic litigation tools for human trafficking civil cases.


FACT SHEET ON STATE ANTI-TRAFFICKING LAWS (Source: Center for Women's Policy Studies, Washington, DC)
This sheet contains a summary of all US state laws addressing trafficking in persons, as of February 25, 2011.


MODEL LAW AGAINST TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS (Source: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime)
The UNODC Model Law against Trafficking in Persons was developed by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime to promote and assist the efforts of Member States to become party to and implement the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its Protocols. It was developed in particular to assist States in implementing the provisions contained in the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children.


NCJRS SEARCH (Source: U.S. Department of Justice, National Criminal Justice Reference Service)
NCJRS is a valuable source of information related to various justice topics. This search is specific to human trafficking.


NIJ SEARCH (Source: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice)
NIJ is a valuable source of information related to various justice topics. This search is specific to human trafficking.


(Source: National Opinion Research Center (NORC), University of Chicago)
Report prepared in response to a congressional mandate to (1) identify victims and potential victims of domestic trafficking; (2) determine whether victims have been identified as such by law enforcement; and (3) explore differences between sex trafficking and unlawful commercial sex. It examines human trafficking experiences among a random sample of 60 counties across the United States.


OVC SEARCH (Source: U.S. Department of Justice, Office for Victims of Crime)
OVC is a valuable source of information related to various justice topics. This search is specific to human trafficking.


SEX TRAFFICKING: IDENTIFYING CASES AND VICTIMS (Source: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice)
The National Institute of Justice’s portfolio on combating human trafficking provides evidence-based research that supports the work of a wide range of practitioners — from prosecutors to local police officers to victim advocates and other service providers. This document is specific to the issue of sex trafficking.


This guide provides general information regarding human trafficking, federal benefits and services, immigration related information, and resources.

State Specific

HUMAN TRAFICKING IN MINNESOTA: A REPORT TO THE MINNESOTA LEGISLATURE (Source: Minnesota Statistical Analysis Center, Office of Justice Programs)
This preliminary report examines the extent and type of human trafficking occurring in Minnesota, and makes recommendations for additional steps needed to understand and combat trafficking in the state.


THE TEXAS HUMAN TRAFFICKING PREVENTION TASK FORCE REPORT 2011 (Source: Texas Human Trafficking Prevention Task Force)
This plan discusses the human trafficking challenges facing Texas, current responses to the problem, and identifies future priorities, initiatives and legislation to enhance anti-trafficking efforts in Texas.


This report by the Vermont Human Trafficking Task Force is aimed at: 1. Identifying ways to raise public awareness about human trafficking; 2. Recommending how the public, business community, local and state government, health, and education providers can best identify, report and prevent acts of human trafficking; and 3. Identifying the services needed by victims of human trafficking and their families and recommending ways to provide those services.


FLORIDA STRATEGIC PLAN ON HUMAN TRAFFICKING (Source: Florida State University Center for the Advancement of Human Rights)
This report reviews human trafficking in Florida and provides recommendations for combating trafficking in five areas: providing data to understand trafficking; developing a resource directory of all service programs relating to trafficking; public awareness strategies; effective laws; and effective state and local programs.


This report reviews California's response to human trafficking and provides findings and recommendations to the Governor, Attorney General and Legislature concerning the following: Identifying the Scope of Human Trafficking in California; Protecting and Assisting Victims of Human Trafficking; Investigating and Prosecuting Human Traffickers; Preventing Human Trafficking in California; and Trafficking Issues Needing Further Study.